The Effects of Parents Reading With Their Children on Reading Levels and Reading Achievement in School Alissa Collins Seminar in Applied Theory & Research Education 703.22 Fall 2010 Final Presentation
Table of Contents • Abstract • Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypothesis • Method Participants Instruments Experimental Design Procedure • Results • Discussion • Implications • References
Abstract Reading scores have been declining and PS X in Brooklyn has been in the bottom percentage of city schools. Reading achievement needs to be improved in any way and parents may be the key. This action research project encouraged parents to read with their children each night over a six week period. Students and parents were surveyed and WRAP was used to assess reading levels for pre-tests and post-tests. The findings were that participants who responded that they read at home with their parents did have higher reading levels than participants who responded that they don’t read at home with parents. There was no correlation found between parents reporting that they do read with their child and an increase of reading levels during the six week treatment.
Introduction • Reading is the basis for all education. Struggling with reading can lead to problems for years to come. • Parents have the opportunity to help strengthen their child’s reading skills and achievements by reading with them at home. • It is debated if reading in the home holds any benefits for young students and contributes to higher levels of reading achievement.
Statement of the Problem PS X has been performing poorly on school report cards, especially in the area of Student Performance over the last several years. Parents at PS X are uninvolved for several reasons. Students need as much help as possible. Parents can provide additional support in the home.
Review of Related LiteraturePositive Effect on Reading Ability Reading achievement in school could be predicted by home literacy activities and how frequently these activities occurred. (Scheffner-Hammer, Farkas & Maczuga, 2010) Students who read harder books in a positive atmosphere at home had higher reading achievement than those who did not. (Baker, Macklet, Sonnenschein & Serpell, 2001) Children have the opportunity to be prepared for school at home. Taking texts read in class home helped to improve reading levels and fluency (Hindin &Paratore, 2007)
Review of Related Literature Additional Benefits or “PROS” Shared reading between a parent and a child increases the motivation level and interest in reading for early elementary students. (Otto,1990) Shared reading between a child and parent can positively effect vocabulary and morphological and syntax comprehension. (Senechal, Pagan, Lever & Quellette, 2008) Reading with your child in a positive atmosphere can lead to Higher social and academic achievement later on. (Vandermaas-Peeler, Bumpass & Sassine, 2009)
Review of Related Literature“PROS”- The type of Shared Reading can make a difference Reading storybooks paired with manipulatives lead to longer sentences and more complicated speech in young children. (Kaderavek & Justice, 2005) Students with pre-established basic reading skills who engaged in powerful dialogue after reading with a parent showed an improvement in verbal expression and higher listening comprehension. (Lonigan, Anthony, Bloomfield, Dryer & Samuel, 1999)
Review of Related LiteratureEffects on students with Special Needs (High Risk, Low SES, ESL & ELL) Children with low pre-literacy skills improve reading behaviors but not comprehension after reading with a parent. (Curenton, 2008) In a comparision of high risk and low risk students only low risk students advanced in letter/sound recognition after reading with a parent. (Laasko, Poikkeus, Eklund, Lyytinen, 2004) Children with reading disabilities are not affected by home literacy practices. (Fontina, Morris & Sevcik, 2005) Low-Level students who participated in the Fast Start Reading Program showed more improvement in reading than low-level students in their grade who did not participate. (Rasinski, 2005) Reading at home in your native language can improve vocabulary acquisition in English. (Roberts, 2008) Mothers in disadvantaged communities want information and can have positive reading behaviors and attitudes.(Morgan, 2005)
Review of Related LiteratureWhat if it doesn’t make a difference?CONS Students who have more books at home do have higher reading levels and scores than students with less books but this is because their parents have higher levels of education and stronger work ethics. (Dubner & Levitt, 2005) United States Department of Education Junior High School students benefit more from reading at school than they do from reading at home. (Taylor, Frye, & Maruyama, 1990)
Statement of Hypothesis HR1: Reading with a parent every night for 20 minutes, over a six week period will improve the independent reading levels in school by at least one for 18 3rd grade students attending PS X, a Title 1 funded school in Brooklyn, NY.
Method Participants 18 third grade students in CTT class 4 students who have an IEP (3 boys and 1 girl) 2 students who have been held over (1 boy and 1 girl – both who have an IEP – held over in previous grades) 2 students who receive ESL services 12 students stay for Extended Day program
Instruments Letters & Instructions to Parents Reading Survey (Likert Scale) Student Interview Parent Survey Pre-Test & Post-Test (WRAP)
Research Design Pre-Experimental Design One- Group Pretest-Posttest Design Symbolic Design: OXO Pretest =o Treatment = x Posttest = o
Threats to Validity Internal Validity • History • Maturation • Instrumentation • Mortality Rate • Differential Selection of Subjects • Selection-Maturation Interaction External Validity • Generalizable Conditions • Selection-Treatment Interaction • Experimenter Effects • Hawthorne Effects • Novelty Effects
Procedure Pre-Treatment September- October 2010 • Parent Meeting & Letters • Pre-Test using WRAP • Student Reading Surveys • Student Interviews Post-Treatment November 2010 • Post-Test Using WRAP • Parent Surveys • Data Analysis
Results - Summary Six out of 18 students went up one reading level, or 1/3 of the class. One student went down one reading level. Pre-test nine students were in 3rd grade range. Post-test 11 students were in 3rd grade range. Student Interview 10 students responded they read with parent. Parent survey 12 parents responded with at least “I agree” to statement – I read with my child. No Correlations Found Correlation between student interviews and post-test reading level = 0.18 Correlation between parent responses and post-test reading level = 0.31 Correlation between parent responses and change in reading level between pre-test and post-tests = -0.09.
Results Six students increased one level One student decreased one level
Results rxy = 0.18
Results rxy = 0.31
Results rxy = 0.09
Discussion Results do not support hypothesis as there is no correlation between parents reading with their children and increased reading levels. However…. After reading intervention in the home reading levels for 1/3 of participants did improve. Researcher cannot conclude that improvement was due to intervention. After Post-Test 10 participants were performing at grade level for reading. 8 of these participants had parents that responded they agree with the statement “I read with my child.”
Implications Researcher still believes parents need to read with their children A longer study should be done. (Six weeks was not a long enough time) Research needs to be conducted in a way to ensure parents are actually reading during intervention and not just recording that they are on reading logs.
References Aram, D., & Aviram, S. (2009). Mothers’ Storybook Reading and Kindergarteners’ Socioemotional and Literacy Literacy Development. Reading Psychology, 30. doi: 10.1080/102702710802275348 Baker, L., Macklet, K., Sonnenschein, S., & Serpell, R. (2001). Parent Interaction with Their First Grade Children During Storybook Reading and Relations With Subsequent Home Reading Activity and Reading Achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 39(5). doi:10:1016/S0022-4405(01)00082-6 Curenton, S. M., Justice, L.M. (2008). Children’s Preliteracy Skills: Influence of Mothers’ Education And Beliefs About Shared-Reading Interactions. Early Education andDevelopment, 19. doi: 10.1080/10409280801963939 Dubner, S.J., & Levitt, S,D. Do Parents Matter? USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-05-03-parents-edit_x.htm U.S Department of Education. (2001). Parental Coaching in Child-to-Parent Book Reading: Associations with Parent Values and Child Reading Skill. Minneapolis: Evans, M.A., Bell, M., Mansell, J., & Shaw, D. Fontina, R.L., Morris, R.D., & Sevcik, R.A. (2005). Relationship Between Home Literacy Environment and Reading Achievement in Children with Reading Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38. Doi: 10.1177/00222194050380010101 Hindin, A., & Paratore, J. R. (2007). Supporting Young Children’s Literary Learning Through Home- School Partnerships: The Effectiveness of a Home Repeated-Reading Intervention. Journal of Literacy Research, 39(3). doi: 1080/10862960701613102
Kaderavek, J. N., & Justice, L.M. (2005). The effect of book genre in the repeated readings of mothers and their children with language impairment: a pilot investigation. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 21. Doi: 10.1191/0265659005ct282oa Laasko, M.L., Poikkeus, A.M., Eklund, K., & Lyytinen, P. (2004). Interest in early Shared reading: It’s relation to later language and letter knowledge in children with and without risk for reading difficulties. First Language, 24, 323-344. Lachner, W., & Zevenbergen, A. (2008). Parent and Child References to Letters During Alphabet Book Readings: Relations to Child Age and Letter Name Knowledge. Early Education and Development, 19. doi: 10.1080/104092802230981 Lonigan, C.J., Anthony, J.L., Bloomfield, B.G., Dyer, S.M., & Samuel, C.S. (1999). Effects of Two Shared-Reading Interventions on Emergent Literacy Skills of At Risk Preschoolers. Journal of Early Intervention, 22. doi:10.1177/1053815119902200406 McNeill, J.H., & Flower, S.A. (1999) Let’s Talk: Encouraging Mother- Child Conversations During Story Reading. Journal of Early Intervention, 22. Doi: 10.1177/105381519902200106 Mooney, M. (1994). Reading to Children: A Positive Step on the Road to Literacy [Electronic version]. Teaching Pre K-8, 25, 90-92. Morgan, A. (2005). Shared reading interactions between mothers and pre-school Children: Case studies of three dyads from a disadvantaged community. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5. doi: 10.1177//1468798405058689 Norris, C. (1976). Renewed Interest in Piaget and Montessori: Implications for the Teaching of Beginning Reading. Retrieved from ERIC database. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (n.d.) Piaget and Vygotsky. Retrieved from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li1lk21.htm
O’Connor-Petruso, S. (2010). Descriptive Statistics &Threats to Internal and External Validity [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://bbhosted.cuny.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_id=_2_1&url=%2fwebapps%2fblackboard%2fe xecute%2flauncher%3ftype%3dCourse%26id%3d_326533_1%26url%3d Otis Hurst, C. (1996). Reading with your child at home [Electronic version]. Teaching Pre K-8, 26, 52-54. Otto, B. W. (1990). Development of Innter-City Kindergarteners’ Emergent Literacy In a Read-at-home Program. Resources in Education, 26. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED323527 &site=ehost-live Partridge, H. A. (2004). Helping Parents Make the Most of Shared Book Reading. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(1), 25-30 Doi:10.1023/B:ECEJ.0000039640.63118.d4 Raban, B., & Nolan, A. (2005). Reading practices experienced by preschool children in areas of disadvantage. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 3. 289-298. Doi: 10.1177/1476718x05056528 Rasinski, T., & Stevenson, B. (2005). The Effects of Fast Start Reading: A Fluency Based Home Involvement Reading Program on the Reading Achievement of Beginning Readers. Reading Psychology An International Quarterly, 26(2). doi: 10.1080/02702710590930483 Roberts, T.A. (2008). Home Storybook Reading in Primary or Second Language With Pre School Children. Evidence of Equal Effectiveness for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition.[Electronic Verson] Reading Reseach Quarterly, 43(2), 103-130. Saint-Laurent, L., & Giasson, J. (2005). Effects of a family literacy program adapting Parental intervention to first graders’ evolution of reading and writing abilities. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5. doi: 10.1177/146879840508688
Scheffner Hammer, C., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2010). The Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Databases [Electronic version]. Journal of Language, Speech & Hearing Services In Schools, 41, 70-83. Senechal, M., Pagan, S., Lever, R., & Quellette, G.P.. (2008). Relations Among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-year old Children’s Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills. Early Education and Development, 19. doi: 10.1080/10409280701838710 Taylor, B.M., Frye, B.J., & Maruyama, G.M. (1990). Time spent Reading and Reading Growth. American Educational Research Journal, 27 Doi: 10:3102/00028312027002351 Vandermaas-Peeler, M., Nelson, J., Bumpass, C., & Sassine, B. (2009). Social contexts of development: Parent-child interactions during reading and play. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9, 295-317. Doi: 10.1177/1468798409345112