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ASY-EOS Past and future: PR Milano, 28/04/14. Symmetry Energy. E sym. E bind (MeV). E Sym (MeV). EOS of symmetric nuclear and neutron matter from Ab initio calculations (red) and phenomenological approaches. Fuchs and Wolter, EPJA 30 (2006). High densities: flows.

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slide1

ASY-EOS

Past and future:

PR

Milano, 28/04/14

slide2

Symmetry Energy

Esym

Ebind (MeV)

ESym (MeV)

EOS of symmetric nuclear

and neutron matter

from

Ab initio calculations (red)

and phenomenological approaches

Fuchs and Wolter, EPJA 30 (2006)

slide3

High densities: flows

Y = rapidity pt = transverse momentum

UrQMD :Au+Au @ 400 AMeV 5.5<b<7.5 fm

Transverse flow: provides information on the on the azimuthal anisotropy of the transverse nucleon emission

=1.5

Elliptic flow: competition between in plane (V2>0) and out-of-plane ejection (V2<0)

=0.5

Qingfeng Li, J. Phys. G31 1359-1374 (2005) P.Russotto et al., Phys. Lett. B 697 (2011)

slide4

FOPI/LAND experiment on neutron squeeze out (1991)

Au+Au 400 A MeV

b< 7.5 fm

LAND coverage

37°<lab<53°

61°<lab<85°

Neutron/hydrogen

FP1: γ = 1.01 ± 0.21

FP2: γ = 0.98 ± 0.35

neutron/proton

FP1: γ = 0.99 ± 0.28

FP2: γ = 0.85 ± 0.47

adopted: γ = 0.9 ± 0.4

Y. Leifels et al., PRL 71, 963 (1993)

P.Russotto et al., PLB 697 (2011)

slide5

Results with Tübingen QMD and UrQMD

x =-1.0±1.0

M.D. Cozma et al., Towards a model-independent constraint of the high-density dependence of the symmetry energy,

arXiv:1305.5417 [nucl-th]

PRC88 044912 (2013)

slide6

ASY-EOS S394 experiment @ GSI Darmstadt (May 2011)

Au+Au, 96Zr+96Zr , 96Ru+96Ru @ 400 AMev

Kracow array: 35 (5x7) triple telescopes (Si-CsI-CsI) placed at 21°<Θ<60° with digital readout .Light particles and IMFs emitted at midrapidity

µBall: 4 ringsCsI(Tl), Θ>60°. Discriminate real target vs. air interactionsatbackwardangles. Multiplicitymeasurements.

TOFWALL: 96 plastic bars Tof, Energy X-Y position.Trigger, impact parameter and reaction plane determination

Krakow array

Chimera

Beam Line

TOFWALL

Target

µBall

Shadow bar: evaluation of background neutrons in LAND

Shadow bars

Start detector

LAND+VETO

LAND: Large Area Neutron Detector . Plastic scintillators sandwiched with Fe 2x2x1 m3 plus plastic veto wall. New Taquila front-end electronics. Neutrons and Hydrogen detection. Flow measurements

CHIMERA: 8 (2x4) rings, high granularity CsI(Tl), 352 detectors 7°<Θ<20° + 16x2 pads silicon detectors. Light charged particle identification by PSD. Multiplicity, Z, A, Energy measurement , Reaction plane determi-nation

slide7

Some kinematics

Au+Au @ 400 AMeV

*

* Random uniform distribution EKin<100 Mev

P. Russotto et al., EPJA 50, 38 2014.

P. Russotto et al., Procs. of INPC2013, in press on EPJ Web of Conf.

P. Russotto et al., Journal of Phys. Conf. Series 420, 012092, (2013)

slide10

Reaction plane orientation

Au+Au @ 400 AMeV

for Yc.m.>0.1

for Yc.m.<0.1

ad. from P. Danielewicz et al., PLB 1985

J-Y Ollitrault arXiv:nucl-ex/9711003v2

g40_23092013

slide11

Preliminary azimuthal distribution from LAND

Au+Au @ 400 AMeV

b< 7.5 fm

preliminary

slide14

Au+Au @ 400 AMeV

b< 7.5 fm

L=70±9

slide15

Towards FAIR

132Sn, 106Sn beams

neuland technical design
NeuLAND technical design
  • finalized in Oct 2011, TDR submitted
  • total volume 2.5x2.5x3 m3
  • 3000 modules (plastic scintilator bars) 250x5x5 cm3
  • each bar readout by two PMT
  • 30 double planes with 100 bars each, bars in neighboring planes
  • mutually perpendicular
  • σt ≤ 150 ps
  • σx,y,z ≤ 1.5 cm
  • one-neutron efficiency ~95% for energies 200-1000 MeV
  • multi-neutron detection capability

I. Gasparic AsyEOS2012 workshop, 6.9.2012, Siracusa, Italy

slide20

NeuLAND technical design

The construction of the full detector will take about 3.5 years, and will be done in 3 steps. In the first step (November 2012), we will use a small assembly of 150 bars to determine time and position resolution with neutrons and validate simulation results. The neutrons of energies between 250 and 1500 MeV will be produced by proton knock-out reactions using a deuteron beam.  In the second step, a 20% of detector will be available for physics experiments in the end of 2014 in Cave C at GSI, which will already profit from an improved resolution for neutron detection. The fully-equipedNeuLAND detector will be commissioned and available for the first experiments at Cave C in 2016. In 2017, the detector will move to its final location in the R3B hall at the FAIR site, being fully operational for physics experiments in 2018 when Super-FRS will deliver first beams at FAIR.

slide21

Califa

CALorimeter for the In Flight detection of γ

rays and light charged pArticles

CsI(Tl) read by APD with digitalread-out

slide24

ASY-EOS future set-up

Kratta,

Farcos,

LAND

Califa

FopiForwardWall+CHIMERA*

NeuLAND

* Ring 1-2-3 (θ<7°)

slide29

Constraints of the Symmetry Energy

B.A. Li NuSym13 summary talk

  • Terrestrial laboratories
  • Several constraints (quite consistent among them) around and below 0
  • Few constraints above 0

S0 L

high density symmetry energy in relativistic heavy ion collisions
N/Z of high density regions sensitive to Esym(ρ)

High ρ>ρ0 : asy-stiff more repulsive on neutrons

High density symmetry energy in relativistic heavy ion collisions

B.A. Li et al., PRC71 (2005)

Which densities can be explored in the early stage of the reaction ?

stiffness

Bao-An Li, NPA 708 (2002)

slide31

NLρδ

NLρ

NL

Esym at high density: π-/π+ratio

IBUU04

Z. Xiao et al., PRL 102 (09)

RMF

Ferini, at al., NPA 762 (2005)

ImIQMD

Z.Q. Feng, PLB 683 (2010)

W.J. Xie , at al., PLB 718 (2013)

ImIBL

slide32

(measured by FOPI, for different systems and energies, as compared to different models)

Esym at high density: π-/π+ratio

Results model dependent

Density dependence of symmetry energy unambiguously soft or hard

BUT

symmetry energy → n/p ratio, number of nn, np, pp collisions

medium → effective masses (N, p, D), cross sections → thresholds

→ Interpretation of pion data

not straight forward

1

1

2

Esym (MeV)

0

1

2

3

r/r0

  • Kaons: more sensitive probes?
  • Higher thresholds
  • Weakly interacting in medium
  • Freeze-out already at 20 fm/c

See:

Z. Xiao et al., PRL 102 (09) IBUU04

Z.Q. Feng, PLB 683 (2010)ImIQMD

W.J. Xie , at al., PLB 718 (2013) ImIBL

G. Ferini, at al., NPA 762 (2005) RMF

slide33

Results with Tübingen QMD

Au+Au 400 A MeV b< 7.5 fm

stiffnes

UrQMD:

momentum dep. of isoscalar field

momentum dep. of NNECS

momentum independent power-law parameterization of the symmetry energy

Tübingen-QMD:

density dep. of NNECS

asymmetry dep. of NNECS

soft vs. hard EoS

width of wave packets

momentum dependent (Gogny inspired) parameterization of the symmetry energy

M.D. Cozma, PLB 700, 139 (2011); arXiv:1102.2728

x =-1.35±1.25

M.D. Cozma et al., Towards a model-independent constraint of the high-density dependence of the symmetry energy,

arXiv:1305.5417 [nucl-th] PRC88 044912 (2013)

slide37

Au+Au @ 400 AMeV

b< 7.5 fm

L=76±9