pm 10 and acute respiratory infection ari among children in klang valley gis mapping
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PM 10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING

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PM 10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING. Siti Rahmah A. R. 1 , Sharifah Norkhadijah S. I. 1 , Muhammad Firuz R. 2 , Mohd Talib L. 3 , Mazrura S. 4.

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pm 10 and acute respiratory infection ari among children in klang valley gis mapping

PM10 AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) AMONG CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY : GIS MAPPING

Siti Rahmah A. R.1, Sharifah Norkhadijah S. I. 1, Muhammad Firuz R. 2, Mohd Talib L. 3, Mazrura S. 4

1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UPM

2School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, UKM

3Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment Studies, UPM

4Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

introduction
INTRODUCTION

Worsened air pollution

  • Rapid urban population growth and physical development has given significant pressure to the environment.

Source: Department of Statistic, Malaysia 2010

air quality status
AIR QUALITY STATUS

Source of Ozone:

- industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical

Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guidelines

Source of SO2:

- Generation of electricity from coal, oil or gas that contain sulphur, fuel combustion

Source of CO:

- incomplete combustion like cigarette smoking and car exhausts

Source of PM10:

- bushfires, unpaved roads, motor vehicles emission, industrial process

Source of NO2:

- Motor vehicles exhaust, electric utilities and industrial boilers

Source: Environmental Quality Report 2010

particulate matter pm 10
Particulate Matter (PM10)

Particles, which are between 2.5 and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5-PM10),

Particles smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), can travel deeper into the lungs.

objective
OBJECTIVE

To determine distribution pattern of PM10 and ARI among children age between 0 to 14 years old in Klang Valley.

slide10
Data analysis

ARI data with the coordinate will be input in the GIS software to build a pattern of ARI cases

Air pollution data with the coordinate of each monitoring station will be input in the GIS software to build a pattern of air pollution

These two pattern will be overlaid to explore the association between ARI and PM10.

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • Highest PM10 was observed in Klang.
  • High PM10 can increase ARI incidence.
  • Integrated usage of geostatistical methods, and spatial analysis can introduce valuable information to identify, visualize and explore the relationship between incidence on ARI and environmental pollution.
study limitation
STUDY LIMITATION
  • Limited air quality station numbers in Klang Valley to get more accurate data in certain places.
  • ARI data may not cover other respiratory registry in some private health sector.
references
REFERENCES
  • Statistics, D. o. (2012). Economic Census 2011. Malaysia: Department of Statistics.
  • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2006). Children’s Environmental Health: 2006 Report. United States: Environmental Protection Agency
  • Environment, D. o. (2010). Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2010. Malaysia: Department of Environment.
  • Wong, S. L., Hussain, I. M. I. (2008). A Study on Under Five Deaths In Malaysia in the Year 2006. Clinical Research Centre.
  • Leh, O. L. H., Shaharuddin, A., Kadaruddin, A., Yaakob, M. J., Hwa, T. K., (2011). Urban environmental health: Respiratory illness and urban factors in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Asia 4(1), 39-46.
  • The Acute Respiratory Infection Atlas, First Edition 2010
  • Zailina, H., Juliana, J., Jamal, H. H. (2004). Comparison of Lung Functions Among Asthmatic Children in Malaysia. Pertanika J. Sci. & Techno. 12(1), II – 20.
  • Brauer, M., Hoek, G., Vliet, P. V., & Meliefste, K. (2002 (166)). Air Pollution from Traffic and the Development of Respiratory Infections and Asthmatic and Allergic Symptoms in Children. Am J RespirCrit Care Med , 1092-1098.
  • Jalaludin, B. B., O'Toole, B. I., & Leeder, S. R. (2004). Acute effects of urban ambient air pollution on respiratory symptoms, asthma medication use, and doctor visits for astma in a cohort of Australian children. Environmental Research 95, 32-42.
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