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Week 11 & 12 Speech Organization for Informative Speech. Why Speech Organization is Important. It allows you and the listeners to see what ideas you have and to put mental “hands” on the most important ones.

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why speech organization is important
Why Speech Organization is Important

It allows you and the listeners to see what ideas you have and to put mental “hands” on the most important ones.

Listeners who hear a well-organized speech believe a speaker to be much more competent and trustworthy.

Listeners demand coherence. A speaker must make sure listeners can follow the progression of ideas in a speech from beginning to end.

Using a clear and specific method of speech organization can boost your confidence as a speaker and improve your ability to deliver a message fluently.

the introduction of your speech
The Introduction of Your Speech
  • Capture the attention of your audience.
  • Authenticate the value ‘What’s in it for me?” .
  • Prove your credibility.
  • Reveal the topic of your speech.
  • Preview the body of the speech.
connecting with the audience
Connecting with the audience

It was reported that Professor Osterweis taught students two main lessons. "First, you have to have substance - values and principles that are worth conserving. Then you have to communicate with them in a way that makes the audience feel that they have ownership of the ideas. It's almost like you have to become part of the crowd, and have them go away adopting the ideas as their own."

Key Lesson: Make sure to connect with your audience with eye-contact, appropriate language, personal stories, and warm personality. The ideas you're talking about are not as important as your own personality. It's the Messenger, not the message.

how to get the attention interest of your audience
How to Get the Attention & Interest of Your Audience

Relate the topic to your audience, why they should be interested (what’s in it for them), why you are talking about it (experience/qualifications/credibility)

Startle the audience with an arresting or intriguing statement.

Refer to a shocking statistic.

Question the audience.

Begin with a quotation.

Tell a story.

Ask audience to imagine themselves in a situation.

phrasing the central idea thesis statement
Phrasing the Central Idea/Thesis Statement
  • A sentence that focuses your audience’s attention on the central point of your speech.
  • Usually in the introduction of your speech
  • Example 1: “The three major kinds of witchcraft practiced today are black magic, sorcery, and satanism.”
example 1
Example 1

Topic: Emergencies

General Purpose: To inform

Specific Purpose:

To inform my audience of the major steps in responding to emergency.

Central Idea:

The three major steps in responding to an emergency are surveying the scene, contacting an emergency medical service, and starting CPR if needed.

the body of your speech
The Body of Your Speech

3 Elements in the Speech Body

  • Main points
  • Supporting points
  • Connectives
main points and organizational pattern
Main Points and Organizational Pattern
  • Select them carefully.
  • Phrase them precisely.
  • Organize them strategically.
    • Chronological order
    • Spatial order
    • Causal order
    • Topical order
    • Problem solving order
example of chronological order
Example of Chronological Order

Specific purpose: To inform my audience of the steps in getting a professional tattoo.

Central idea: There are four main steps in getting a professional tattoo.

Main points:

First, the skin is shaved and sterilized in the area to be tattooed.

Second, the main lines of the tattoo are traced on the skin with a machine called an outliner.

Third, colored pigments are applied inside the outline with a machine called a shader.

Fourth, the tattoo is sterilized and bandaged.

example of spatial order
Example of Spatial Order

Specific purpose: To inform my audience about the design of the Eiffel Tower.

Central idea: The Eiffel Tower is divided into three sections.

Main points:

The lowest section of the tower contains the entrance, a gift shop and a restaurant.

The middle section of the tower consists of stairs and elevators that lead to the top.

The top section of the tower includes an observation deck with a spectacular view of Paris.

example of causal order
Example of Causal Order

Specific purpose: To inform my audience of the possible causes of the unusual occurrences in the Bermuda Triangle.

Central idea: The causes of the unusual occurrences in the Bermuda Triangle have not yet been fully explained.

Main points:

Many unusual occurrences have taken place in the Bermuda Triangle.

Experts have advanced three major explanation about the causes of these unusual occurrences.

example of topical order
Example of Topical Order

Specific purpose: To inform my audience about the uses of lasers.

Central idea: Lasers harness the power of light for a wide range of uses.

Main points:

Lasers have many important uses in science.

Lasers have become indispensable to industry.

Lasers are revolutionizing the practice of medicine.

supporting points
Supporting Points
  • Supporting materials are backup ideas for the main points.
  • Directly support and are relevant to the main points.

I. Millions of people suffer from headaches.

A. People have put up with headaches since the beginning of recorded history.

B. More than 20 percent of Americans have severe, recurring headaches.

II. There are several causes of headaches.

A. Most headaches are caused by tension.

B. Some headaches are caused by irregularities in the blood


C. Other headaches are caused by specific illness, such as

cold and sinus infections .

supporting materials
Supporting Materials
  • Examples
    • a specific instance that represents some larger class
      • Relevance? Enough instances? Typical example? Counterexamples?
  • Facts
    • something that is verifiable as true
      • Reliable source? Verifiable? Recent? Consistent?
supporting materials1
Supporting Materials
  • Statistics
    • numerical summaries of data that are classified in a meaningful way
    • Reliable source? Unbiased questions? Representative sample? Meaning of “average”?
  • Expert opinion
    • a quotation from someone with special credentials in the subject matter
    • Source expertise? Reliability? Bias?
supporting materials2
Supporting Materials
  • Description
    • a word picture of something
      • Accurate? Vivid?
  • Explanation
    • an account, interpretation, or meaning given to something
      • Clear? Accurate?
supporting materials3
Supporting Materials
  • Narrative
    • an extended story that is fully developed with characters, scene, action, and plot
      • Probability (internal coherence/believability)?
      • Fidelity (close to real-life experiences)?
finding support
Finding Support

Research is the process of gathering supporting materials





Firstly, we’re going to …

Let me begin by …

I would like to start by …

Let me briefly take you through what we’ll be looking at today.

If we take a look at this slide …

As you can see from this graph …

Another area of consideration …

Let’s change direction for a moment …

Finally, …

So what have we looked at so far? Well …

Thank you for listening so patiently.

Now, does anyone have any questions?

connectives transition
Connectives: Transition

Transitions are used to indicate movement from a completed thought to a new thought. Transitions indicate what idea is being left and what idea is coming upExample:

We have spent a lot of time talking the problem. It’s time now to discuss the solution.

Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, allow me to explain how the situation can be reversed.

connectives internal previews
Connectives: Internal Previews

Internal previews direct the audience to what areas will be covered next. Internal previews generally appear once the speaker has finished a transition and after a new main point. The speaker simply previews the subpoints which make up the point being addressed.Example:

(Transition) Now that we have seen serious the problem of missing children is, let’s take a look at some solutions. (Internal preview) I willfocus on three in particular – stronger legal custody laws to …and…Let’s consider them in turn.

connectives internal summaries
Connectives: Internal Summaries

Internal summaries are the opposite of the internal preview. Rather than indicating what subpoints are to follow in the speech, internal summaries remind the listeners what subpoints have been discussed. Internal summaries are excellent ways to reinforce and clarify ideas which are essential for the audience to rememberExample:

In going back over the effects of …

In essence, by learning to breathe properly, finding the optimum pitch of your speaking voice, and allowing your chest to do the work, you will eliminate vocal abuse forever.

connectives signposts
Connectives: Signposts

Signposts are short statements which tell the audience where the speaker is in the speech. Signposts are usually numbers of words which suggest the importance of what the speaker is about to say.Example:

The first cause…

The final contributing cause is…

The most important thing that I would like to..

the conclusion of your speech
The Conclusion of Your Speech
  • Signal the end of the speech by using cues like:
    • Ending words
    • Voice characteristics – tone, pace, rhythm
  • Reinforce the central idea by:
    • Restating the main points.
    • Emphasize what you want your audience to do or think.
    • Use a quotation or dramatic statement, if appropriate.
    • Refer to the introduction.

“ A speech is like a love affair, any fool can start one but to end it

requires considerable skill.”