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Neutrinos from AGN & GRB. Expectations for a km 3 detector. Cosmic-ray factories?. Artist’s(*) conception of a massive, accreting, compact with accretion disk and relativistic jets * Artist = Todor Stanev. Active Galaxies: Jets. Radio Galaxy 3C296 (AUI, NRAO).

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neutrinos from agn grb

Neutrinos from AGN & GRB

Expectations for a km3 detector

PS638

Tom Gaisser

cosmic ray factories
Cosmic-ray factories?

Artist’s(*) conception

of a massive, accreting, compact

with accretion disk and

relativistic jets

* Artist = Todor Stanev

PS638

Tom Gaisser

active galaxies jets
Active Galaxies: Jets

Radio Galaxy 3C296 (AUI, NRAO).

--Jets extend beyond host galaxy.

Drawing of AGN core

VLA image of Cygnus A

PS638

Tom Gaisser

M. Urry, astro-ph/0312545

spectral energy distribution for blazars
Spectral Energy Distribution for blazars

Figure from Markus Bötcher, Astrophys. Space Sci 309 (2007) 95-104

PS638

Tom Gaisser

slide5

Jet breakout in GRB

following collapse of

massive progenitor star

0 seconds

fireball protons and

photons interact

Image: W. Zhang & S. Woosley

See astro-ph/0308389v2

PeV

EeV

TeV

- 10 seconds

fireball protons interact with remnant of the star

afterwards

afterglow protons interact with inter-stellar medium

PS638

Tom Gaisser

slide6
PS638

Tom Gaisser

Slide from Alexander Kappes

slide7
PS638

Tom Gaisser

energy content of extra galactic component depends on location of transition
Energy content of extra-galactic component depends on location of transition
  • Composition signature:
  • transition back to protons
  • Uncertainties:
  • Normalization point:
    • 1018 to 1019.5 used
    • Factor 10 / decade
  • Spectral slope
    • a=2.3 for rel. shock
    • =2.0 non-rel.
  • Emin ~ mp (gshock)2

PS638

Tom Gaisser

power needed for extragalactic cosmic rays assuming transition at 10 19 ev
Power needed for extragalactic cosmic rays assuming transition at 1019 eV
  • Energy density in UHECR, CR ~ 2 x 10-19 erg/cm3
    • Such an estimate requires extrapolation of UHECR to low energy
    • CR = (4/c)  E(E) dE = (4/c){E2(E)}E=1019eV x ln{Emax/Emin}
    • This gives CR ~ 2 x 10-19 erg/cm3 for differential index  = 2, (E) ~ E-2
  • Power required ~ CR/1010 yr ~ 1.3 x 1037 erg/Mpc3/s
    • Estimates depend on cosmology and extragalactic magnetic fields:
    • 3 x 10-3 galaxies/Mpc3 5 x 1039 erg/s/Galaxy
    • 3 x 10-6 clusters/Mpc3 4 x 1042 erg/s/Galaxy Cluster
    • 10-7 AGN/Mpc3 1044 erg/s/AGN
    • ~1000 GRB/yr 3 x 1052 erg/GRB
  • Assume E-2 spectrum. Then n signal ~ 10 to 100/km2yr
    • ~20% have E>50 TeV (greater than atmospheric background)

PS638

Tom Gaisser

grb model
GRB model

Bahcall & Waxman, hep-ph/0206217

Waxman, astro-ph/0210638

  • Assume E-2 spectrum at source, normalize @ 1019.5
  • 1045 erg/Mpc3/yr
  • ~ 1053 erg/GRB
  • Evolution ~ star-formation rate
  • GZK losses included
  • Galactic extragalactic transition ~ 1019 eV

PS638

Tom Gaisser

berezinsky et al agn
Berezinsky et al. AGN
  • Assuming a cosmological distribution of sources with:
    • dN/dE ~ E-2, E < 1018 eV
    • dN/dE ~ E-g, 1018< E < 1021
    • g = 2.7 (no evolution)
    • g = 2.5 (with evolution)
  • Need L0 ~ 3 ×1046 erg/Mpc3 yr
  • They interpret dip at 1019 as
    • p + g2.7 p + e+ + e-

Berezinsky, Gazizov, Grigorieva

astro-ph/0210095

PS638

Tom Gaisser

or start with a model of the extra galactic component

3 X 1018 eV

3 x 1017eV

What is power needed

for extra-galactic CR?

Or start with a model of the extra-galactic component

Subtract it from the observed spectrum to get the galactic component

Allard, Olinto, Parizot, astro-ph/0703633

PS638

Tom Gaisser

model dependence of composition in galactic extragalactic transition
Model dependence of composition in galactic-extragalactic transition
  • Model extragalactic component
  • Subtract from observed
  • to get galactic component

Allard, Olinto, Parizot, astro-ph/0703633

proton model

mixed model

PS638

Tom Gaisser

berezhko v lk

30

Heavies at end of galactic

Extra-galactic protons

Berezhko & Völk
  • Model galactic component
  • Subtract from observed
  • to get extragalactic

Transition predicted:

1016.5 to 1017.5 eV

arXiv:0704.1715v1 [astro-ph]

PS638

Tom Gaisser

detecting neutrinos
Detecting neutrinos
  • Rate
    • Convolution of:
      • Neutrino flux
      • Absorption in Earth
      • Neutrino cross section
      • Range of muon
      • Size of detector

Probability to detect

nm-induced muon:

PS638

Tom Gaisser

neutrino effective area
Neutrino effective area
  • Rate:

= ∫fn(En)Aeff(En)dEn

  • Earth absorption
    • 10-100 TeV
      • cos(q) > -0.8
      • Main effect near vertical
    • Higher energy n’s absorbed at larger angles

PS638

Tom Gaisser

expected signals in km 3

Diffuse (unresolved) sources--signature:

  • hard spectrum
  • charm background uncertain

1800 / yr

200

30

15

~ 1

charm

< 1

Expected signals in km3
  • Possible point sources:
    • Galactic
      • SNR 0 - 10 events / yr
      • m-quasars 0.1 - 5 / burst

~ 100 / yr, steady source

      • Magnetars ~ 30 events / yr
    • Extra-galactic
      • AGN jets 0-100 / yr
      • GRB precursor (~100 s)
        • ~ 1000 bursts / yr
        • ~ 0.2 events / burst
      • GRB jet after breakout
        • smaller mean signal / burst
      • Nearby bursts give larger signal in both cases

Thomas K. Gaisser

slide20

Point source search with

7 years of AMANDA

3.8 yrs livetime

26 candidate sources

Jim Braun, UW Madison, presented at Cosmo-08

PS638

Tom Gaisser

search for neutrinos from grb

All flavor limits by AMANDA

Cascade(Rolling)

Cascade(Trig & Roll)

Waxman-Bahcall

PRL 78 (1997) 2292

Murase-Nagataki A

PRD 73 (2006) 063002

Supranova,

Razzaque et al.

PRL 90 (2003) 241103

Choked bursts

Meszaros-Waxman

PRL 87 (2001) 171102

Limits on neutrinos from GRB from AMANDA:

-from cascades (ne, nt), Ap.J. 664 (2007) 397

-from neutrino-induced muons, Ap.J (to be published)

nm search

Search for neutrinos from GRB

GRB models

PS638

Tom Gaisser