Chapter 9 Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 1833-1850
I. A Rising Tide: Racism & Violence • Increased racism and violence, 1830-1860 • Met with growing abolitionist militancy • Manifest Destiny • Legitimized war for territorial expansion • Defined progress in racial terms • White people are a superior race • Nativism • Scientific justification • Continued enslavement of black people • Extermination of Indians
Anti-black and Anti-abolitionist Riots • Urban riots pre-dated abolition • Increased as abolitionism gained strength, 1830s-1840s
Antiabolitionist and Antiblack Riots During the Antebellum Period • African Americans faced violent conditions in both the North and South during the antebellum years. Fear among whites of growing free black communities and white antipathy toward spreading abolitionism sparked numerous antiblack and antiabolitionist riots.
Texas and War with Mexico • Texas annexation divided the nation • Fear of adding another slave state • Political parties avoided the issue • James K. Polk wanted Texas and Oregon • Texas annexed in 1845 • War with Mexico, 1846-1848 • Polk provoked war
The American Anti-Slavery Society • American Anti-Slavery Society • AASS, 1831 • Black men participated without formal restriction • Rarely held positions of authority • William Lloyd Garrison – white abolitionist • Immediate, uncompensated emancipation • Equal rights for African Americans
Black and Women’s Anti-slavery Societies • Fundraising • Main task • Bake sales, bazaars, and fairs • Feminism • Created an awareness of women’s rights • Challenged male culture • Essays, poems, speeches • Sojourner Truth -See PROFILE pg 289
The Black Convention Movement • First convention, Philadelphia, 1831 • Local, state, and national black conventions • Goals: • Provided a forum for black male abolitionists • Abolition of slavery • Improve conditions for northern black people • Integrate public schools • Black suffrage • Juries • Testify against white people in court
III. Black Community Institutions • Free black communities • Fivefold increase, 1790-1830 • Gradual emancipation and individual manumission • Provided resources • Churches, schools, and benevolent organizations • Provided the foundations for black anti-slavery institutions
Black Churches • Leading black abolitionists often ministers • Used sermons to attack slavery and racial hatred • Provided meeting places for abolitionists • Forum for speakers
Black Newspapers • Important voice in abolition movement • Freedom’s Journal • Samuel Cornish • North Star • Frederick Douglass • Financial difficulties
Cool Down • How did the addition of new American land cause the slavery debate to become a national political issue? • In what ways did African-Americans create organizations to try to improve their living conditions?
IV. Moral Suasion • AASS Reform strategy • Moral Suasion (persuasion today) • Appeal to Christian conscience • Support abolition and racial justice • Slaveholding was a sin • Sexual exploitation, unrestrained brutality • Northerners’were guilty also • Government protected slaveholder interests • Profited off of cloth manufactures • Fugitive Slave Act of 1798
Moral Suasion (cont.) • AASS - Used moral arguments against slave owners - Ultimately failed • Great Postal Campaign • Sent anti-slavery literature to the South • Petitions to Congress • 1836 over thirty thousand petitions reached Washington • To end slavery in Washington, D.C.
Moral Suasion (cont.) • Reactions • Southern response • Southern postmasters censored mail • Vigilantes attacked antislavery supporters • Gag Rule, 1836 • No petitions related to slavery introduced in the House • AASS sent 415,000 petitions in 1838 • Northern response • Mobs attacked abolitionists • Disrupted meetings, destroyed newspaper presses • Elijah P. Lovejoy – white abolitionist newspaper editor was killed by a mob attempting to defend his printing press in Illinois.
V. The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society • Divided by failure of moral suasion • AASS splintered in 1840 • Role of women in abolitionism • Garrison’s increasing radicalism • Members form the AFASS (American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society • Liberty party • First antislavery political party • Nominated James G. Birney, for President1840 • Former slaveholder turned abolitionist • Received 7,069 out of over 2.4 million votes
VI. A More Aggressive Abolitionism • Growing northern sympathy for slaves • Labor demands sent slaves to the Southwest • Radical wing of Liberty party • Constitution supported slave resistance • Encouraged northerners to help slaves escape
The Amistad • Rebellion aboard slave ship • Slaves took control, ship came on shore in New Haven, Ct. • Court battle over the origin of the captives • If born on plantation in Caribbean then they could be tried for murder and either executed or returned to slavery • If born in Africa, they were kidnapped and should be set free and returned • Political debate dividing nation, John C. Calhoun, SC senator, threatening succession
Amistad Cont. • First judge ruled they were free • President Van Buren called for new trial • Second judge ruled that they were born in Africa and freed • President Van Buren called for Supreme Court to hear the trial • Ex-president, US congressman, John Q. Adams agreed to argue on behalf of the captives • JQ Adams Supreme Court
Underground Railroad • Secret path to freedom, few details are known. Unknown origin. • Harriet Tubman, known as black Moses, escaped slave, dedicated her life to free her people • Made 13 trips • Escaped slaves would travel at night • During the day they would hide in “friendly” locations • Use secret signals like a lantern hanging • Hide in attic or basement • Move from safe house to safe house until reaching Canada, Canada West • Between 1850-1860 black population rose from 8,000 to 20,000 • Ungerground Railroud
The Underground Railroad • Map 9–2. The Underground Railroad • This map illustrates approximate routes traveled by escaping slaves through the North to Canada. Although some slaves escaped from the deep South, most who utilized the underground railroad network came from the border slave states.
Harriet Tubman • Harriet Tubman, standing at the left, is shown in this undated photograph with a group of people she helped escape from slavery. Because she worked in secret during the 1850s, she was known only to others engaged in the underground railroad, the people she helped, and a few other abolitionists.
VII. Black Militancy • Too much talk and not enough action • More black abolitionists consider forceful action • Weak loyalty to national organizations • Influenced by rebellious slaves • Many black abolitionists wanted to do more, 1840s-1850s • Charged white abolitionists with deceit • Lewis Tappan • William Lloyd Garrison
VIII. Frederick Douglass • Born a slave, 1818 • Learned to read • Developed a trade • Escaped in 1838 • Antislavery lecturer, 1841 • Encouraged by Garrison • Breaks with Garrison in 1847 • North Star, 1847 • Endorsed the New York Liberty party, 1851
Cool Down • As an escaped slave would you live out the rest of your life having your freedom or try to help the people that were still living as slaves? Explain.
Cool Down • No written cool down today • Work on your test study guide