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Cardiovascular System. Circulatory System. Transport System Oxygen Nutrients CO2 Blood is circulated through the body via vessels & pumped by the heart. Heart. Begins to beat at 4 wks in utero Beats an average of 50 – 100 times a minute (called?)

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circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Transport System
    • Oxygen
    • Nutrients CO2
  • Blood is circulated through the body via vessels & pumped by the heart
heart
Heart
  • Begins to beat at 4 wks in utero
  • Beats an average of 50 – 100 times a minute (called?)
  • Weighs less than 1 pound & big as the human fist
  • Contracts about 100,000 times a day
  • Pumps the equivalent of 2000 gallons of blood through the body
  • What cavity is the heart located?
heart1
Heart
  • Made of 3 layers
    • Pericardium – double layer membrane that covers the heart
    • Myocardium – thickest layer & the muscualar middle layer
    • Endocardium – innermost cells of smooth muscle that lines the heart & blood vessels
    • Septum – muscular wall that separates the heart into right & left
atrium ventricles
Atrium & Ventricles

Heart is divided into 4 chambers.

The upper chambers are atrium

The lower chambers are ventricles

flow of blood
Flow of Blood
  • Right Atrium received De-oxygenated blood from the body (Superior & Inferior Vena Cava)
  • Blood then flows through the Triscupid Valve to the Right Ventricle
  • De-oxygenated blood is then taken to the lungs by the Pulmonary Artery
  • O2 & CO2 are exchanged in the lungs
  • Oxygenated blood is taken back heart by the Pulmonary Vein
  • Oxygenated blood enters the Left Atrium
  • Travels through the Mitral Valve to the Left Ventricle
  • Blood goes to the body via the Aorta through the aortic valve
cardiac cycle
Cardiac Cycle
  • Is the sequence of events in one heartbeat
  • Systole – Heart at work
  • Diastole – Heart at rest
  • Atrium – Systole / Ventricles – Diastole & vice versa
  • http://anatimation.com/cardiac/intro.htm
electrophysiology of the heart
Electrophysiology of the Heart
  • SA (sinoatrial) node – Pacemaker
  • AV node – located in the lower interatrial septum
  • Bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle)
  • Purkinje fibers
cv disorders
CV Disorders
  • Myocardial Infarction – Death of part of the heart muscle due to lack of oxygen; often the result of an obstruction
  • Symptoms
    • Pain radiating up to jaw &/or down arm
    • Chest Pain (“Elephant sitting on the chest”)
    • Weakness or lightheadedness
    • SOB (Shortness of Breath)
    • Women may have different symptoms!
heart murmurs
Heart Murmurs
  • Heart Murmur - Abnormal or extra sound caused by a malfunctioning heart valve
    • Mitral valve regurge – heard on Systole
  • Stenosis - Congenital
  • Damaged Heart Valve
    • Rheumatic Heart Fever
hypertension htn
Hypertension (HTN)
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Essential Hypertension – no specific cause
  • Physical responses to HTN
    • HA
    • Blurred vision
  • Long term effects
    • Weakness of arteries (lead to aneurysms)
    • Left Ventricular hypertrophy
htn cont
HTN Cont.
  • Prevention
    • Exercise
    • Lose weight
    • Reduce salt intake
  • Contributing behaviors:
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Stress
shock
Shock
  • Cardiogenic Shock –
    • Usually after severe MI or V fib
    • The heart does not pump & CO decreases
  • Hypovolemic shock
    • Decreased blood volume
    • Heart does not have enough blood to pump
    • Due to hemorrhage, extreme dehydration
  • Septic shock
    • Result of presence of bacteria in blood (septicemia)
    • Causes the vessels to vasodialate & plasma goes into tissue