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The First Years of the War 1861-1863. Take Five….

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Presentation Transcript
take five
Take Five…

Ft. Sumter is MOST significant for being  A) the location of the end of the Civil War.  B) destroyed by the Union when taking Port Royal.  C) the target of General Sherman's March to the Sea.  D) where the first shots of the Civil War were fired.

the art and science of war
The Art and Science of War

Antoine-Henri Jomini

Art of War

West Point

Position, Maneuver & Concentration

High ground

Occupying major cities

Retreat

the armies
The Armies

Cavalry

Artillery

Infantry

Corps of Engineers

The Quartermaster Corps

the typical battle
The typical battle

Advancing through grapeshot

Hand to hand combat

Smoke and confusion

the soldiers
The soldiers

Billy Yank and Johnny Reb

Conscription

Exemptions

Substitutions

Riots

Draft dodgers

Desertion

Bounties

army life
Army life

Drudgery

Poor food and shelter

Logistical problems

Profiteers

Disease and lack of medical treatment

reasons for southern exemptions
Reasons for Southern Exemptions
  • Haitian slave revolt (1791)
  • Denmark Vesey (Freedmen’s revolt (1822-Charleston, SC)
  • Nat Turner (1831-Southampton, VA)
  • Propaganda
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin
    • William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator
    • David Walker’s The Appeal
the first campaigns 1861
The first campaigns 1861

A short and painless war

Lincoln’s plan

Bull Run or Battle of Manassas

General McDowell v General Beauregard

The “rebel yell”

“Stonewall” Jackson and Joe Johnston

Southern victory

stonewall jackson
“Stonewall Jackson”

"If anyone says he heard the rebel yell and wasn't scared, then ,he never heard it." A Northern soldiers comments on the rebel yell given when confederates charged their positions.

preparation
Preparation

Overconfidence in the south

Regrouping-Army of the Potomac

General McClellan

differing strategies
Differing strategies

Northern strategy

Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan

Defend Washington & Pressure on Richmond

Gain control of the Mississippi Valley

Blockade the south

slide23

Lincoln’s Generals

Winfield Scott

Joseph Hooker

Ulysses S. Grant

Irwin McDowell

George McClellan

George Meade

Ambrose Burnside

George McClellan,Again!

southern strategy
Southern strategy

Stop Union advances

Foreign allies

Great Britain

France

Napoleon III

King Cotton dethroned

“Cotton diplomacy”

The Trent affair

James Mason & John Slidell

Charles Francis Adams

the war in 1862
The War in 1862

“Copperheads”

Suspension of the right of habeas corpus

Suppression of anti-administration newspapers

The exile of Clement Vallandisham

Defeatism

Southern victories

General Jackson & General Robert E. Lee

slide27

The Confederate Generals

“Stonewall” Jackson

Nathan Bedford Forrest

George Pickett

Jeb Stuart

James Longstreet

Robert E. Lee

western campaign a shift in the war
Western campaign-A shift in the war

General Halleck & General Ulysses S. Grant

Battle of Shiloh Church

General Albert Sydney Johnston

General Buell

The War at Sea

Threatening the blockade

The Merrimack (The Virginia)

The Monitor

slide30

The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862

The Monitor vs.the Merrimac

munitions
Munitions

Confederates

Union-Army of the Potomac

General McClellan

Springfield repeating rifle

Political differences

the peninsula campaign
The Peninsula Campaign

McClellan attempts to take Richmond

Lee bluffs

2nd Battle of Manassas

Davis encourages Northern victories

Battle of Antietam

Lee’s army escapes to Virginia

emancipation
Emancipation

Emancipation Proclamation

Enlisting in the army

British neutrality

54th massachusetts
54th Massachusetts
  • Col Robert Gould Shaw
  • Recruited by white abolitionists
  • “death sentence” by the Confederacy
  • James Island, SC
  • Fort Wagner, Charleston, SC
  • Fort Pillow