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LIS6 18 lecture 6 Vector Model and ProQuest. Thomas Krichel 2011-11-01. advantages of Boolean model. supposedly easy to grasp by the user precise semantics of queries implemented in the majority of commercial systems. problems of Boolean model.

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advantages of boolean model
advantages of Boolean model
  • supposedly easy to grasp by the user
  • precise semantics of queries
  • implemented in the majority of commercial systems
problems of boolean model
problems of Boolean model
  • sharp distinction between relevant and irrelevant documents
  • no ranking possible
  • users find it difficult to formulate Boolean queries
  • users find it difficult to resolve Boolean queries
vector model
vector model
  • associates weights with each index term appearing in the query and in each database document.
  • relevance can be calculated as the cosine between the two vectors, i.e. their cross product divided be the square roots of the squares of each vector. This measure varies between 0 and 1.
tf idf
tf/idf
  • stands for term frequency / inverse document frequency
  • This refers to a technique that gives term a high rank in a document if
    • the term appears frequently in a document
    • the term does not appear frequently in other documents
  • We will look at each component one at time.
absolute maximum term frequency
absolute & maximum term frequency
  • Let F_t_d be the number of times term t appears in the document d. This is its absolute term frequency in the document.
  • Let m_d be the maximum absolute term frequency achieved by any term in document d. Examples
    • Document 1: a b a a b c c d

m_1 = 3, because "a" appears 3 times

    • Document 2: a b a f f f e d f a a

m_2 = 4, because "a" or "f" appears 4 times

relative document term frequency
relative document term frequency
  • The relative term frequency f_t_d, is given by

f_t_d = F_t_d / m_d

that is the absolute term frequency of term t in document d divided by the maximum absolute term frequency of document d.

  • This completes the "term frequency" part of the tf/idf formula.
  • Let us look at this part through an example.
main example part i
main example, part I
  • Consider three documents
    • 1: a b c a f o n l p o f t y x
    • 2: a m o e e e n n n a n p l
    • 3: r a e e f n l i f f f f x l
  • First, look at the maximum frequency achieved by any term in a given document.

m_1 = 2 ("a", "f" and "o" are there twice)

m_2 = 4 ("n" is there four times)

m_3 = 5("f" is there five times)

main example part ii
main example part II
  • Now look at some example of absolute term frequency

F_a_1 = 2 F_e_2 = 3 F_x_3 = 1

  • and some examples of relative term frequency

f_a_1 = F_a_1 / m_1 = 2 / 2 = 1

f_e_2 = F_e_2 / m_2 = 3 / 4 = 0.75

f_x_3 = F_x_3 / m_3 = 1 / 5 = 0.2

inverse document frequency
inverse document frequency
  • Let N be the number of documents in the datebase. N=3 in our example.
  • Let n_t be the number of documents where the term t appears. In our example

n_a = 3 n_e = 2 n_x = 2

  • N/n_t is an indication of inverse document frequency of a term. It is larger the less a term appears across documents in the database.
intermezzo the logarithm
intermezzo: the logarithm
  • The logarithm, written log() is a mathematical function. You should know that
    • log() is an increasing function, i.e. the bigger is x, the bigger is log(x).
    • log(1) = 0
    • log(x) > 0 if x > 1
  • Your calculator will tell you what the logarithm of a number is.
tf idf formula
tf/idf formula
  • Term frequency and inverse document frequency have to be combined.
  • The final formula for the weight combines the terms as follows

w_t_d = f_t_d * log( N / n_t )

main example part iii
main example part III

N = 3

w_a_1 = 1 * log(3/3) = log(1) = 0 !

w_e_2 = 0.75 * log(3/2)

w_x_3 = 0.2 * log(3/2)

where log(3/2) = 0.176, approximately

practical operation
practical operation
  • The computer will search the documents for the query term and return the documents where the weight of term in the index for that document is strictly positive, by order of weights, highest to lowest.
  • If there are several query terms the computer will perform a more complicated operation that we will not further study here, so we limit ourselves to the case of one query term.
practical tests
practical tests
  • You ask the computer to query the term "a" in our example. What documents are being returned?
    • Compare with the result of the Boolean model.
  • You ask the computer to query the term "e". What documents are being returned, and in what order?
advantages of vector model
advantages of vector model
  • term weighting improves performance
  • sorting is possible
  • easy to compute, therefore fast
  • results are difficult to improve without
    • query expansion
    • user feedback circle
proquest search targets
ProQuest search targets
  • ProQuest searches “citations” and “documents”.
  • “citations” are description of documents such as author names, titles, journal etc.
  • “documents” contain the full-text of documents.
  • Target differences imply different behavior of an expression when matched against a candidate.
proquest search
ProQuest search
  • If you enter two search terms, they will be used as one phrase.
  • If you use three term, they are searched to be appearing in proximity.
  • You can force phrase interpretation by placing the search expressions into double quotes.
terms
terms
  • A search term is something you type and that has a meaning on its own.
  • For example: house, or krichel.
  • Terms have a regular expression interpretation.
regular expressions
regular expressions
  • ‘*’ is used as a right-handed truncation character only; it will find all forms of a word.For example, searching for “econom*”.
  • ‘?’ is used to replace any single character, either inside the word or the right end of the word. For example, searching for “wom?n”
  • ‘?’ cannot be used to begin a word.
operators and
operators: and
  • AND Find the words.
  • When searching for keywords in "Citation and Document Text," AND finds documents in which the words occur in the same paragraph (within approx. 1000 characters) or the words appear in any citation field.
operator and not or
operator: and not, or
  • “and not” is the same as “not” in Dialog.
  • “or” is a normal Boolean or.
proximity operators
proximity operators
  • W/numberFind documents where these words are within some number number of words apart (either before or after). Use when searching for keywords within "Citation and Document Text" or "Document Text."Example: computer W/3 careers
  • NOT W/number does the opposite.
proximity operators1
proximity operators
  • W/PARA Finds documents where these words are within the same paragraph (within approx. 1000 characters). Use when searching for keywords within "Document Text."Example: internet W/PARA web
proximity operators2
proximity operators
  • W/DOC Find documents where all the words appear within the document text. Use W/DOC in place of AND when searching for keywords within "Citation and Document Text" or "Document Text" to retrieve more comprehensive results.Example: Internet W/DOC education
proximity operators3
proximity operators
  • PRE/number Find documents where the first word appears some number numberof words before the second word.
  • Use when searching for keywords within "Citation and Document Text" or "Document Text."Example: world pre/3 web
field syntax
field syntax
  • It is possible to limit a search for a term to a field.
  • This is done by writing field( term)
abstract
abstract
  • ABS() search article abstracts for your terms.
  • Examples:    ABS(customer delight)    ABS(ozone)
appendix
appendix
  • APX() searches the appendix of a document. The appendix usually comes at the end of the document, identified by a header
  • Use Keywords to search this field.
  • Example: APX(Michigan)
author
author
  • AU() is used to find articles written by an author or reviewer.
  • Example  AU(Thomas Krichel)
classification code abi
Classification code (ABI)
  • Use Classification Codes when searching business topics. Classification Codes are a fast way to precisely target a search by topic, industry or market, geographical area, or article type.
  • Examples:     CC(1120) for Economic Policy & Planning
  • This only applies to a subset of data from ABI inform, which has these codes.
coden
Coden
  • This is use to search the coden index. A coden is an alphanumeric code used for shelving/ordering books and journals in libraries, often based on a publication’s title.
  • Example:     CODEN(EDUSBI)
column document column head
Column / Document Column Head
  • The title of a column in a periodical or newspaper, such as “The Week in Review”. This search field finds all articles where the search words are in the column head.
  • Examples:     COL(futures)     COL("The Week In Review")
company organization
company / organization
  • CO() searches for an organization featured prominently in an article,
    • Associations and cooperatives
    • Companies and their divisions
    • Governmental organizations and olitical parties
    • sports teams, music bands and churches
    • native american tribes
  • Comes with LCO({}) option for full matches.
publication date
publication date
  • PDN() searches the publication date in numeric format (mm/dd/yyyy).
  • You can use the < and > signs to indicate dates before and after a date, or between specific dates.
  • For example, PDN(>1/1/2002) AND PDN(<1/5/2002) will find results from publications with numeric dates between January 1 2002 and January 5 2002.
dateline
dateline
  • DLN() searches article Datelines. The dateline occurs frequently in newspapers, just after the article title, giving the date and place of the articles origin. You can use Boolean, proximity and truncation operators.
  •  DLN(lebanon pre/1 ohio)
document features
document features
  • SF() is used to search document features, such as an index or auxiliary materials, that may be included in or accompany a document.
  • The document features indexed are:
    • Graphs and Illustrations
    • Maps
    • References
    • Tables
search by proquest handle
search by proquest handle
  • ID() Searches the unique database ID for articles and documents in ProQuest.
  • Examples:    ID(356894)
document language
document language
  • LA() is used to search Language index. This field contains the language in which the document was published originally.
  • Examples:    LA(french)   LN(french or english)
document text
document text
  • Searches only the full text of articles for your search terms. Article abstracts are not included in this search. AND, OR, and other search operators are treated as such unless enclosed in quotes.
  • Examples:     TEXT(Kofi Annan)     TEXT("North Sea oil")
title searches
title searches
  • TI() searches the title of a document, such as “Seigniorage, Taxation and Myopia in EMU”
document type
document type
  • DT() is used to look for search words or phrases in documents of a certain type.
  • Examples    DT(commentary)     DT(editorial cartoon)     DT(review)     DT(arts/exhibits review)     DT(television review-no opinion)
company number
company number
  • DUNS() searches Dunn and Bradstreet trading partner identification number. These numbers provide a universal system for computer identification of companies.
  • Examples:    DUNS(00 695 7856)    DUN(03 575 3920)
footnote
footnote
  • FOOT() searches the article footnotes for your terms.
  • Examples:     FOOT(326 U.S. 465)
volume
volume
  • Volume() searches the volume.
  • Examples:    VO(100)
word count
word count
  • WC() restricts the number of words in the article text. Use this search field to locate articles under (<) or over (>) a certain length.
  • Examples:
    • WC(<1000)
    • WC(>500)
    • WC(>750 AND <1000)
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year
  • Year searches the publication year
  • Examples:     YR(1986)    YR(1986-1987)     YR(>1998)    YR(<1998)
location
location
  • GEO() is used this search field to look for articles in which a geographical area or location figures prominently in the text.
  • Examples:     GEO(Midwest)     GN(UK)     GEO(New South Wales)     GN(Black Forest)
  • Comes with LGEO({})
headnote
headnote
  • HEAD() looks for words that occur in the headnotes of an article. Headnotes are short introductions, explanations, or comments at the beginning of an article. They are different from abstracts in that they do not attempt to summarize the content of the article.
  • Examples:     HEAD(escalator accidents)     HDN(digital tv)     HEAD(Global Economy)
caption texts
caption texts
  • CAP() This search field looks for occurrences of search words in the caption text accompanying article illustrations, graphs, and photographs.
  • Examples:     CAP(Chart)
additional index
(additional) index
  • INDEX() locates all occurrences of search words in any searchable index field. It does not find occurrences in the text of the articles.
  • Examples:     INDEX(starcore)
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ISSN
  • ISSN() looks for the eight-digit International Standard Serials Number (ISSN), where available. Hyphens are optional.
  • Examples:     ISSN(0011-4664)     SN(00916358)
issue
issue()
  • ISSUE() is used to search Issue Number.
  • Valid Forms:     ISSUE    IS
  • Examples:    IS(10)
naicis sic
NAICIS / SIC
  • NAICS() or SIC() searches for industry codes. The NAICS/SIC code defines the economic activity of a business as defined by the US Census Bureau.
  • Examples:     SIC(4911)     SIC(514210)
start page
start page
  • PAGE() is used for specific pages of a publication. Useful for finding front page articles.
  • Example:    PAG(A.1) AND PUB(wall street journal) AND PDN(1/10/2003)
person
person
  • NAME() finds articles about a person. When the Personal Name field is displayed in an article citation, the life spans of historical figures follow their names.
  • You can enter the name in any format. Searching for NA(John A Smith) will return the same results as NA(Smith, John A).
product name
product name
  • PROD() finds articles about a specific product.
  • Examples:     PROD(TiVo)     PR(harley-davidson)
journal
journal
  • JN() is used to search by a specific publication or publications.
  • Examples:     JN(Forbes)     JN(New York Times or Washington Post)     JN(computing) — retrieves all periodicals with "computing" in their titles
section
section
  • SECTION() finds articles that appear in a specific section of a publication. Use the SOURCE search field to specify a publication. You must specify the section name exactly as it appears in the publication.
  • Examples:     SOURCE(New York Times) AND SECTION(editorial) AND AU(Gore Vidal)     SEC(sports) AND NA(Florence Griffith Joyner)
source type
source type
  • STYPE() is used include or exclude the following source types from your search: dissertations, newspapers, periodicals and wire feeds.
  • Examples:     NA(Winston Churchill) AND STYPE(periodical)     GEO(Japan) AND STYPE(wire feed)
subject terms
subject terms
  • SU() is used to look for articles about a specific subject. When searching Hoover's, this contains information on company type.
  • Examples:     SU(Music)     SU(venture capital companies)     SU(Health Care)     SU(nonprofit)
  • Comes with LSU({}) facility
combined search
combined search
  • When you select “Citations and abstracts” from the drop-down menu, ProQuest searches the following fields: AU(), NAME(), ABS() PN(), TI(), SU(), CO(), SO(), GEO()
slide63

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