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Introduction: The Challenges GISC 6383 Geographic Information Systems Management & Implementation Dr. Ronald Briggs The University of Texas at Dallas Program in Geographic Information Sciences
Personal Nuts and Bolts • Dr. Ronald Briggs • Office: Green 3.212 • Phone: 972-883-6877 (o), 972-345-6918 (cell) • Office hours: • T/Th 6:30-7:00; • Wed 3:00-4:00 • & by appointment, or feel free to drop-in • Email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.utdallas.edu/~briggs/gisc6383.html
Evaluation Evaluation • midterm exam (25%) (“T/F with explanation”) • Sample on web site • final exam (30%) (“T/F with explanation”) • Sample on web site • Technology Assessment report (20%): group project • Implementation Plan (25%): individual project • More about the two projects later • Dates/Deadlines are all on the course syllabus
Texts Tomlinson, Roger Thinking about GIS: GIS Planning for Managers ESRI Press, 2005 2nd ed. (1st ed is OK) Zeiler, M. Modeling our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design ESRI Press, 1999 Alternative Texts to Tomlinson : Huxhold, William E. and Levinsohn, AllanG. Managing Geographic Information System Projects New York: Oxford, 1995 Harmon and Anderson The Design and implementation of Geographic Information Systems Wiley, 2003
Alternative Texts and Useful Books Management/People focused Obermeyer, Nancy J. and Pinto, Jeffrey K. Managing Geographic Information Systems New York: The Guilford Press, 1994 (dated and very academic) von Meyer, Nancy and R. Scott Oppman Enterprise GIS.URISA, 1999, 98 pp. (set of case studies) Derek Reeve, GIS, Organizations and People London: Taylor & Francis, 2000 (UK case studies) Heather Campbell and Ian Masser GIS and Organizations London Taylor and Francis, 1995 (earlier edition of Reeve) Technology focused Korte, George B. The GIS Book Santa Fe: Onword Press, 5th Ed. 2001 Hohl, Pat GIS Data Conversion: Strategies, Techniques, Management Santa Fe, Onword Press, 1998 Yong-Qi Chen and Yuk-Cheung Lee Geographical Data Acquisition Springer-Verlag, 2001, Shashi Shekhar and Sanjay Chawla Spatial Databases: A Tour Prentice Hall, 2003
ESRI PRESS Application area series Public Sector • O’Looney, John Beyond Maps: GIS and Decision Making in Local Government, 2000--- excellent! • Fleming, Cory The GIS Guide for Local Government Officials , 2005 • Huxhold, W.E. ArcGIS and the Digital City: A hands-on approach for local government, 2004 • Green, R.W. Open Access-GIS in E-Government, 2001 • Green, R.W. GIS in Public Policy • Amdahl, G. Disaster Response: GIS for Public Safety, 2001 • Green, R.W. Confronting Catastrophe: A GIS Handbook, 2002 • LeGates, R. Think Globally, Act Regionally: GIS and data visualization for social science and public policy research, 2005
ESRI PRESS Application area series Private Sector/Specific Application Areas • Boyles, C.T. Measuring Up: The Business Case for GIS, 2004 • Harder, C. GIS Means Business, 1998 • Lang, L. Managing Natural Resources with GIS, 1998 • Harder, Christian Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies, 1999 • Lang, Laura GIS for Health Organizations, 2000 • Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001 • Lang, Laura Transportation GIS, 1999 • Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001 • Herzog, David Mapping the News: GIS in Jounalism, 2003 (features UTD!) • Harder, C. Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies 1999 • Lang, L. Managing Natural Resources with GIS, 1998 • Hanna, K GIS for Landscape Architects, 1999
Semester Student Assignments • Provide a State-of-the-Art Technology Assessment report for a selected topic: • class presentation to be made on assigned date and accompanied by written evaluation • See course outline for example topics: you may select others • 2 or 3 people per group (no more and no less: 12 groups max.) • Prepare a GIS Implementation Plan for an organization, using principles outlined in class • 1. By or before date of Midterm, identify organization and send me e-mail outlining your intentions. • 2. Turn in your written report (target 10-15 pages) at semester end. See course syllabus for exact due dates. See Web site for additional details.
Course Objectives • to understand the fundamentals of implementing and managing Geographic Information Systems within modern organizations • maximizing the liklihood of success • minimizing the liklihood of failures
What is a GIS? A GIS allows the geographic features in real world locations to be digitally represented so that they can be abstractly presented in map (analog) form, and they can be worked with and manipulated to address some problem. • It can be the basis for: • conducting a project, • running one or more departments • within an organization, • or for managing an entire enterprise.
Real World A city wants you to propose a plan for re-organizing its primary operations (80% of which are geographic based) so that standard daily operations, as well as longer-term decision making, can be accomplished more speedily and efficiently. You propose an inter-departmental shared GIS to replace paper maps and documents associated with daily operations and to improve data and information flow between departments to enhance and speed-up decision-making.
Real World • Texas Super High Speed Rail asks YOU to propose alternative routes, with initial cost estimates, for high speed rail lines linking Dallas, Houston, San Antonio. The initial plan should be ready next month. You use GIS to examine alternative corridors and estimate costs.
Add natural features Add human features Add socio-economic data Utilize industry standard commercial database (Oracle, SQL Server, etc.) An Oil company wants to start documenting it’s oil production by well. They own or lease over 30 thousand wells worldwide. Set up a GIS that can accept reporting data on a daily basis and analyze production trends.
A City wants YOU to supply it with all it’s base mapping, set up it’s new computers/GIS network so maps can be shared between departments, train it’s users and make quarterly updates for them until they hire a GIS Coordinator. They need a proposal in two weeks.
Real World You are an intern in the city fire department. The fire chief has heard of GIS and thinks it could help them with their planning. Being young, educated, somewhat computer literate, but not trained to go out on fire-trucks (thus in the chief’s eye relatively useless), you are asked to research this and make recommendations.
GIS Scope Project Single department application (Departmental GIS) Multi departmental application Enterprise system (Enterprise GIS) Multi Institutional endeavor (Community GIS)
Level I: Project • Institutional Environment • Expected result is a product • Project has an end date • Costs paid by project • No long-term support expected & no commitment to GIS • little or no organizational impact • GIS Implementation Approach • One-time effort • need best tool for the job • consultant or contractor may do entire thing • Benefit • product produced on-time & within budget • highway feasibility study completed • rail line corridor study complete
Level II: Single Department(but perhaps multiple of them!) • Institutional Environment • Small Institution or Single Department • Well-defined, existing business function to be supported • Ongoing support is required but no major commitment to GIS • Little or no reorganization e.g. manual drafters shift to GIS workstation • Managed by departmental responsible for business activity • Corporate support nice, but not needed • GIS Implementation Approach • PCs, with local department network • File-based spatial data; maybe CAD focused • Little or no integration with attribute databases • Little or no sharing of information within or beyond department • Benefit • supports specific business task more effectively and efficiently Example: automate map production or manage storm water drainage system
Level III: Multi-Department/Service Resource • Institutional Environment • Mid-size to large institution, more than one department • More significant commitment of staff and budget to GIS • Ongoing support and update strategies essential • Some organizational or functional adjustments required • perhaps run as a service department or managed by cooperating departments • corporate support helps, but not essential • GIS Implementation • Multiple, networked PCs • Topological GIS data • Relational database • Some information sharing between departments • Benefit • Improves effectiveness of specific business tasks • Improved operational efficiency • Integration of business functions • Better use of limited resources Example: automate map production and manage storm water drainage system
Level IV: Enterprise System • Institutional Environment • Usually medium to large institution, multiple departments • High level long-term commitment of staff and resources to GIS • Organization-level strategic planning via formal methodology, distributed implementation and maintenance • Incorporation of GIS as part of organizational infrastructure for production of services; significant organizational adjustments • corporate management support and involvement of corporate is essential • GIS Implementation • Distributed client-server networks • Integration of multiple GIS, database, and related technologies • Multi-department data sharing, • standards and metadata essential • Benefit: as for multi-department, plus • Emphasis is improved effectiveness (better ,not just cheaper!) • Consistent information • Better decision making • Better external service to citizens and customers Example: “Calgary Implements Enterprise GIS” ARCNews, v. 21, #2, 1999
Level V: Multi-Organizational • Institutional Environment • public organizations, most probably; industry alliance possibly, but anti-trust laws may be a problem • Multi-participant organizational structure for planning and policy • Distributed maintenance responsibilities across organizations • Long-term, high level commitment among participating organizations • Significant reorganization of functions across organizations • GIS Implementation • Distributed maintenance of shared elements • Data exchange facility via Internet or other WAN • Data integration from multiple technologies • standards and metadata paramount • Benefits • lower costs to citizen/tax payer • enhanced competitive position Example: State government, metropolitan area, industry alliance
Scope of Management Challenge • Know how to use GIS as a tool • route fire or garbage trucks • draw maps • Understand how GIS can be used to meet the goals and objectives of your unit or organization • reduce losses from fires • enhance service to citizens/customers • Appreciate the challenge of integrating GIS enterprise-wide into the organization to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness • This is what we will do!!! Gets harder!
Fundamental Management Responsibilities • Plan! • Taking the hits as they come is not management! • If you don’t know where you are going, you never get there • The unexpected should never be expected • Standardize! • Free-for-all throughout the organization is not management! • Standards are paramount • Document! • Relying on people’s heads as the depository for organizational knowledge is not management!
GIS Implementation • no guaranteed recipe for success • no cookie-cutter formula to apply BUT • there are general procedures and processes (models) which can help immeasurably • ignorance of problems & past failures is not bliss • to be forewarned is to be forearmed!
Context for Successful GIS Implementation(What you need to understand: primary course topics) • GIS Paradigm • Use of spatial location as integrating framework for information • Understanding the GIS paradigm the focus of GISC 6381 Fund. • Geographic Data Management Principles • Extend data management principles to include geographic focus • db (database) principles one major component of this course • Technology • Select appropriate GIS-enabling technology and plan to evolve • Addressed via student group technology reports • Organizational Setting • Organizational setting a crucial ingredient to success/failure • Systematic GIS design process essential for enterprise-wide applications: major topic for this course
I. Data acquisition (never underestimate the cost!) paper maps digital files remote sensing/satellite fieldwork II. Preprocessing: preparation & integration format conversion digitizing and/or scanning edge matching and rectification III. Data Management variable selection & definition table design (performance v. usability) CRUD policies/procedures: Create (data entry), Retrieve (view), Update (change), Deletion (remove) IV. Manipulation and Analysis (all the user cares about!) address matching network analysis terrain modelling (e.g. slopes, aspects) V. Product Generation tabular reports graphics (maps and charts) Steps in a GIS Project Appropriate for a project, but insufficient for an enterprise implementation.
GIS Enterprise Planning Process: general strategy retirement savings? boats & cars? kids college? residence? • Conceptual Design/Needs Assessment/Requirements/ why do it • does it support organization’s goal or strategic plan? • Tomlinson Chap 3, 4, 5 Chap. 11 • Huxhold Chap. 3 Strategic Planning for GIS • Logical Design: what it does • what business process(es) will be supported? • Tomlinson Chap 6 ,7 • Huxhold Chap. 5 Systems Design Methodology • Physical design: how it will do it • hardware, software, data, applications, people & their management • Tomlinson Chap 8, Chap 9, Chap 10 • Huxhold Chap. 4 Implementation Planning • Implementation: getting it going • actually doing it! • Tomlinson Chap 12 • Huxhold Chap. 6 Implementation Management • On-going System Management: keeping it going • operations, maintenance, update and use • Huxhold Chap. 7 Managing the System bachelor pad m-no-k core family extended family Ranch or 3 story floorplans wood or brick tub or shower Dirt flies concrete poured Move in. Living there. Maintenance Home improvements
Needs Assessment Conceptual Design Database Database Planning Construction and Design GIS Use and Available Data Survey GIS System Application Database Integration Development Maintenance Acquisition of Pilot/ GIS Hardware Benchmark and Software H/W & S/W Survey GIS Development GuidesState of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997) http://www.sara.nysed.gov/pubs/gis/gisindex.htm An 11-step Process 1 2 6 5 3 11 9 9 8 7 4 An 11-step process An 11-step process An 11-step process.
A 10-Stage GIS Planing MethodologyTomlinson, Thinking About GIS • Consider the strategic purpose • Plan for the planning • Conduct a technology seminar • Describe the information products • Define the system scope • Create a data design • Choose a logical model • Determine system requirements • Benefit-cost, migration and risk analysis • Make an implementation plan Conceptual Design Logical Design Physical Design Implementation
4. Cost-Benefit Analysis 11. Implementation Plan 1.Definition of Objectives 8. Shortlisting 5. Pilot Study 12. Contract 2. User Requirements 9. Benchmark Testing 3. Preliminary Design 10. Cost- Effectiveness Evaluation 13. Acceptance Testing Analysis of Requirements Evaluation of Alternatives Specification of Requirements Implementation of System 6. Final Design 7. Request for Proposal (RFP) 14. Implementation A Fourteen Step Implementation Process! (assumes external acquisition) Source: Longley, et. al. p. 391
Plan Analyze Design Acquire & Develop Operate & Maintain Five-step Process from Somers/URISA Conceptual design Logical design Physical design Implementation Source: Rebecca Somers, Quick Guide to GIS Implementation and Management Park Ridge, IL: Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 2001, p.7
“Its not the order or precise structure of the tasks but rather that, in one way or another, all get completed.” GIS Development GuidesState of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997)
Evolution of Issues During ImplementationCampbell, (1992) • Technological, associated with system compatibility • data-related, associated with lack of consistency between data sets • organizational, associated with data ownership and control • institutional, associated with how to use information in the policy-making process as implementation proceeds Each challenge must be overcome as the implementation process proceeds.
Human Factors ParamountCampbell, 1992 • Organizations, and units in them, jealously guard their scope of activity and treat with suspicion proposals that may change this • administrative applications associated with cost savings are more readily accepted than decision-making applications to be used by policy makers • local communities very suspicious of developments that suggest centralization of information and therefore power • GIS techies often uncomfortable with social and political aspects of system implementation and utilization, thus need to involve politically-adept users/line managers/policy makers
People problems paramount! • "....As far as your project goes, I'm willing to help but I'm not sure we are the ideal candidate for the project. I'm working for the Department of Natural Resources which covers a lot of territory: Oil and Gas Administration, Water Administration, Game and Fish Department, Land Administration, etc. etc. All these departments are sort of run as little fiefdoms with each not really working with the others unless they have to. It's sort of the norm, nobody wants to coordinate with anyone else. I know from attempts in the past that it is nearly impossible to get information or data from these guys. In some cases we have ended up collecting our own data just because we couldn't get copies from other departments. We had a full time planner spend the better part of a year meeting with department heads to try to identify their needs, update the status of various projects, and come up with a plan for the future. Very frustrating as this was all work that was going to help them but they didn't want to cooperate at all. Long story short, I'm willing to help but can't commit much time to dealing with these idiots, trying to get information out of them. This is a weird little environment and not really like the "real world" in a lot of respects..." • Quote from an e-mail received by a student in GISC 6383
Conclusion: GIS Implementation • a comprehensive, systematic approach to planning, design and implementation will more likely produce a successful GIS implementation--but no guarantees! • GIS is both an enabling technology and a set of concepts about organizing work and data, thus it will impact an organization’s established “way of doing business” • management and institutional issues raise the greatest challenges, thus must be addressed • “The only human that loves change is a baby in diapers”: • open, participative processes are more likely to deal successfully with with these management and institutional issues ( and the technical ones!), therefore involve people • GIS is a complex information technology application, thus many of the same principles apply as in IT…...
Conclusion: Information Technology Implementation • Organizational change is both a cause and an effect of evolving information technology • Human aspects of organizational change are more important and challenging than technical aspects • While information technology can improve organizational performance, the technology alone will not transform an organization • Successful implementation depends on planned, well-conceived and managed integration of information technology change and organizational change A corresponding list of implementation challenges from an IT text!
Conclusion: GIS within Context Organizational Context --people and processes Organizational Context --people and processes Management Organization’s Goals and Strategies Technological Environment