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Dog Breeds ID. Vet tech. History of dogs. One of the first animals to be domesticated by humans . Modern dogs are most directly descended from the wolf . Ancestory of entire dog family Miacis: small carnivorous animals, lived in trees 40 or 50 million years ago.

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dog breeds id

Dog Breeds ID

Vet tech

history of dogs
History of dogs
  • One of the first animals to be domesticated by humans.
  • Modern dogs are most directly descended from the wolf.
  • Ancestory of entire dog family
    • Miacis: small carnivorous animals, lived in trees 40 or 50 million years ago.
      • Descendants of Miacis were:
        • Daphaenus-large boned animals w/long tail
        • Hesperocyon: small, coyote-like dogs that spent little time in trees and began to hunt on ground.
        • Tomarctus- directly descended from Hesperocyon
  • Fathers of modern dogs
  • They were built for speed, endurance, and leaping. They are only surpassed in speed by the cheetah.
  • Tomarctus evolved into our modern: dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, fennecs, and jackals.
  • Has four major lines or groups classifying the modern dog:
    • Herd dogs
    • Hounds and terriers
    • The Northern and toy dogs
    • Guard dogs
the sporting group
The Sporting Group
  • Develop for hunting and pursuit of game.
  • The Pointer: short-haired, agile, strong, affectionate, and does not require a lot of attention. Earned its name for stance taking in presence of game.
  • German Shorthaired Pointer: versatile dog with extraordinary hunting skills in assorted weather and terrain situations.
  • German Wirehaired Pointer: A crossbreed, with keen nose, hard and bristly hair, intelligent, but with an unfrinedily demeanor towards strangers.
labrador retriever
Labrador Retriever
  • From Newfoundland
    • Short coupled, strongly built, very active, with a great sense of smell
    • Active water dog, will go into water in any weather. Has short, thick, water-restinant hair
    • Dependable. Great service dog for blind, search and rescue
irish setter
Irish Setter
  • Common ancestry to English setter
  • Distinctive red color.
  • Used for hunting all game because of speed, boldness & toughness.
  • Very loyal and lovable. An ideal show dog
    • Slow learners but once they have it, they retain it
american cocker spaniel
American Cocker Spaniel
  • Smallest member of the sporting dog family
  • Name from proficiency hunting woodcock
  • Excellent companion dog. Sensitive and sweet.
  • Other cocker spaniels:
        • The Brittany: more like a setter, a shooting dog, jovial, and great sense of smell
        • The Springer: fastest spaniel and more compact.
  • Developed in 19th century, as a noble hunting dog, often called a gun dog.
    • Hunted big game: wild boar, bear, and deer, later would be used to hunt smaller game: waterfowl, rabbits, and foxes
    • Great at tracking and pointing out game
    • May have black or gray coat
golden retriever
Golden Retriever
  • Developed in Scotland mid 19th century as gun dog for fetching shot game and returning it.
  • Love water and have dense inner coat that keeps them adequate warm in most conditions.
  • Easy to train, need lots of exercise, they have tendency to raom
  • 3rd most popular family dog in United States
  • Used as guide dogs, hearing dogs, detection, as well as search and rescue dogs.
  • Live span 10-12 years
the hound group

The Hound Group

Two Types

Hunt by scent

Hunt by sight

afghan hound
Afghan Hound
  • Hunt by sight, in packs, they are sure-footed and fast on all terrain.
  • Require lots of grooming and hair care.
basset hound
Basset Hound
  • From France, great sense of smell for trailing rabbits, deer, raccoons, foxes, and other game.
  • Short-legged with heavy bones, good with children, and affectionate.
  • When hunting Basset hounds have great endurance and determination.
  • May be hard to house-break as pets because they are stubborn at times.
  • One of oldest breeds, actual origin unknown
  • Noted rabbit hunter
    • Cheerful
    • Friendly
    • Excellent pet
b loodhound
  • From 3rd century, used for tracking people
    • Lost children, buried miners, earthquake victims
    • Bloodhounds are Not attack dogs, they are somewhat shy, and sensitive to kindness.
    • Can follow a scent several hours old
  • 15th century, Germany. Used for hunting badgers.Dachs means badger; hund means dog.
    • Three types: short-haired, wired-haired, long-haired
    • Three sizes: normal, miniature, and toy
    • Dachshund are clever, bold, “barkers” and good watch dogs.
  • Ancient breed and favorite of royalty. Hunted all game (deer, wild boar, fox, etc.)
  • Major asset: speed. Greyhound can reach speed of 40 mph.
  • Needs lots of exercise, would survive roaming country by killing small animals.
  • Found 1610 in England, were descendants of greyhounds
  • However because of medium size were deemed unsuitable for hunting big game
    • Trained to hunt rats and rabbits
    • Have few health problems
    • Today are used for dog racing
      • “The poor man’s racehorse”
      • Run at speeds up to 35mph
the terrier group

The Terrier Group

Two Groups



welsh terrier
Welsh Terrier
  • Developed to hunt in dens and work in pack with hounds.
  • Today, consider an apartment dog/ watch dog
  • Traits are friendly and outgoing
cairn terrier
Cairn Terrier
  • Oldest terrier from Scotland used for hunting burrowing prey
  • Left pawed, which indicates superior sense of smell
  • They shed very little, need daily walks, and live about 12-17 years
  • Toto from was Wizard of Oz, was a Cairn Terrier
working dog group

Working Dog Group

Guard Dogs, sled dogs, police dogs, rescue dogs, and messenger dogs

doberman pinscher
Doberman Pinscher
  • Developed in Germany, in 1890 and named after Louis Dobermann.
  • Used as watchdogs, police dogs, war dogs.
  • Male and females have different temperaments.
    • Females are calm but wary of strangers.
    • Males aggressive and need disciplined owner
    • Often live 15 to 20 years
great dane
Great Dane
  • Develop in Germany, 1800’s but on hieroglyphics from 3000BC.
  • Used for hunting wild boar and bear because of great size as well as a “battle dog” and watchdog.
  • Traits: spirited, friendly, and dependable.
great pyrenees
Great Pyrenees
  • Central Asia or Siberia
  • Guardians to sheppard’s flocks.
  • Great sense of smell & sight
  • Great size & strength
  • Affectionate house pet but needs lots of space, exercise, & grooming
  • Pack dog in ski areas, rescue dogs, messenger dogs in WWI.
  • “Great Dog of the Mountain”
  • Developed in German town of Rottweil.
    • Also known as Drover dogs and used for herding cattle to and from the market
    • Rottweiler are massive, powerful, and very protective of their owners.
    • Obedient, intelligent, and excellent companion dogs.
saint bernard
Saint Bernard
  • Appeared 1660-1670 in the hospice St. Bernard de Menthon.
  • Monks used dogs for companionship and took them on mercy trips
  • Monks discovered Saint Benard’s were excellent pathfinders in drifting snow and sense of smell.
  • Traits- obedient, extremely loyal, and loves the company of humans
siberian husky
Siberian Husky
  • Developed Northeastern Asia, endurance sled dog, then brought to Alaska circa 1909.
    • Dominate Alaska Sweepstake Race for next decade
    • Naturally friendly, independent, and gentle.
    • Lacks aggressive or protective tendencies but can be stubborn and ill-humored around children.
  • Found by Russian, developed in Hungary.
  • Traits- great size, strength, courageous demeanor, heavy white coat of hair.
  • Breed will fight wolves, bears, and other large foes to protect flock.
  • Developed in England, 19th century.
  • Known for size, strength, and loyalty.
  • Rarely bark and are natural guard dogs.
  • 40% Old English Bulldog, 60% English Mastiff
  • Butkus from Rocky movies is a Bullmastiff
herding dogs group

Herding Dogs Group

Developed to help with livestock activities

border collie
Border Collie
  • Two forms: rough-coated or smooth-coated.
  • Unknown origin, today more of family dog
  • Traits- kind, sensitive, loyal but wary of strangers
  • Versatile animals: rescue dogs, guide dogs for blind, and police dogs.
  • Need frequent brushing to keep hair unknotted.
german shepherd
German Shepherd
  • Several theories to breed creation
    • Cross between various herding and farm dogs
    • Mating between herding and farm dogs with wolves.
    • Courageous, obedient, and loyal
    • Messenger dogs in wars, police dogs, and guides for blind
old english sheepdog
Old English Sheepdog
  • 19th century, England with unknown ancestry
  • Traits- muscular and steady with the gait like a bear.
  • Great herd dog, sled dog, and retriever
  • Great family dog.
welsh corgi
Welsh Corgi

The Cardigan

The Pembroke

Came with Flemish people over English channel to Wales same family as Chow Chow with no dachshund characteristics

Short body , straighter legs, lighter bones, pointed ears and finer textured hair

Easily excited

  • From Wales, same family that produced the Dachshund
  • Ears are rounded, long tail.
  • Both dogs are fast for their sizes, intelligent, and easy to train.
australian cattle dog
Australian Cattle Dog
  • Breed 19th century in Queensland, Australia for driving cattle long distances, biting or nipping the cattle to keep them in line.
  • Medium sized, very active/high energy, requiring a lot of exercise in two color brown or black.
  • Little maintenance
australian shepherd
Australian Shepherd
  • Developed late 19th/early 20th century in the western United States on ranches. Often called “Aussies”
  • Highly trainable, energetic, excellent rescue dogs
  • Known for “smiling” while barring teeth.
toy dog group

Toy Dog Group

Toy because of size

Some as small as 1.5 pounds

Popular as house pets

  • Smallest breed in the world.
  • Develop in 9th century, named after state of Chihuahua in Mexico
    • Oldest breed on the American continent
    • Companion dog noted for energy, courage, affection, and intelligence
    • Chihuahua do not like other dogs
  • Two types:
    • Short-haired
    • Wavy-haired
  • 400 BC., oriental origin from Buddhist monks in Tibet
  • Compact body, very muscular, deeply wrinkled forehead, with tender eyes.
  • Very affectionate, love attention, and children
    • Easily trained and intelligent
yorkshire terrier
Yorkshire Terrier
  • Developed in England for catching rats and vermin
  • Its shiny coat of hair makes it a favorite lapdog
    • Hair needs constant care and care
    • Adults with lots of free time should have these dogs.
shih tzu
Shih Tzu
  • Origin 624 AD, given to Chinese court and bred in the Forbidden City of Peking
    • Shih Tzu means lion
    • Brought to England in 1930 and has a distinctive arrogant walk.
    • Needs daily hair maintenance
  • 19th century, from Mediterranean city of Malta
  • Bred to be cuddly
  • Traits: black button nose and shiny hair
  • Needs constant hair maintenance but little shedding.
  • Developed in 18th century in Pomerania in Central Europe
  • Made popular by royals such as QueenVictoria
  • Pomeranian can be many colors
  • They are sturdy, healthy dogs
  • Nervous, playful, stubborn, and bark a lot
non sporting dogs

Non-Sporting Dogs

Companion Dogs

  • Origin is of great debate. Depictions have been found in ancient Egypt, Asia, and Africa.
    • Known to not stay in one place for very long (nomadic)
    • Used as war dogs, draft dogs, and herd dogs
      • Great for hunting as bird dogs, trail hounds, and pack hunting wild boar and bear.
      • Used more importantly as carriage or coach dogs
      • Will follow master on foot, horseback, or carriage
      • Dalmatians are calm, loyal, and thrive on human companionship.
lhasa apso
Lhasa Apso
  • From Tibet, used as guard dog because of quick hearing and instincts for telling friends from enemies.
  • Easily trained, obedient, and affectionate to owners.
  • Origin Germany, known as Pudel- to splash in the water,
  • The national dog of France
  • Three sizes: standard, miniature, and toy
  • Originally were water dogs or retrievers. Now mostly show-dogs that do circus tricks.
chow chow
Chow Chow
  • 13th century AD, Northern China
  • Evolved from gray wolf
  • Original teddy bear was modeled off the Chow Chow
  • Not very active but need exercise and shed a lot
  • Developed in Netherlands in 18th century.
  • Medium size, black and silver dog that is agile and obedient
  • Loud distinctive bark
  • Known as a comfort dog and was used at ground zero after9/11
choosing a dog
Choosing a Dog
  • Selecting a breed
    • Large or small dog?
    • Active or quiet?
    • What type of hair?
    • What is the purpose of the dog?
      • Hunting, protection, companionship, exercise, showing
    • How much will the dog cost over its entire life?
choosing a source
Choosing a source
  • Buying from friends and neighbors: usually get lovable “mutts”
  • Pet shops: dogs from breeders but most likely from “puppy mills” or “puppy factories”
  • Newspaper, on-line, and national kennel clubs
  • Pure and cross breeders: concerned about reputation and proper placement for animals
selecting an individual animal
Selecting an Individual animal

- Pedigree- ancestry of dog

  • Conformation- look and make-up of dog
    • Standard set by breed association
    • Most puppies should not be taken from mother until they are at least 8 weeks old.
  • Why are you getting dog?
  • What is the cost?
  • What is the pedigree?
  • Is there a history of show winning or field championships?
  • Does it meet conformation standards?
  • Do you want female or male dog?
  • What age do want the dog?
feeding exercise
Feeding & Exercise
  • Healthy dogs need an adequate diet and clean water.
        • Puppies, three weeks old, need freshwater all the time
  • Three main types of commercial foods
    • Dry: main ingredients corn, soybean meal, wheat millings, meat, and bone meal.
      • Contains 10% moisture
      • 23% protein, 9% fat, 4% fiber
    • Semi-moist: corn, meat by-products, soybean meal, and corn syrup
      • Contains 30% moisture
      • 25% protein, 16% fat, 8% fiber
    • Canned: Two types
        • Ration-type : barley, meat by-products, wheat grain, and soy flour
          • 30% protein, 16%fat, 8% fiber
        • Meat-type: meat by-products, meat, poultry, and soy flour
          • 44% protein, 32% fat, 4% fiber
        • Contains 75% moisture
    • Dry food are advantageous because of cheap price, convenience, longevity and clean dog’s teeth
feeding different dogs
Feeding different dogs
  • Pregnant Females: weight increases around fourth week. Before giving birth may consume 35-50% more food than usual.
  • Puppies should be weaned from mother by six weeks of age
    • Puppies begin lapping solid foods at week 3 and should feed 3-4 times a day
    • Eggs should be hard-boiled or cooked before fed to dogs. Eggs give dogs shiny coats of hair.
    • Chicken, turkey, and pork bones should never be given to dogs.
  • Do not exercise a dog strenuously within 2 hours of a large meal
  • Take dog to veterinarian often
  • Dogs are like athletes they need to be built up for strenuous activities
  • Signs of fatigue: excessive panting, change in color of lips and face, vacant stare, and change in behavior.
  • 5 basic commands: heel, sit, down, stay, and come
  • Should begin moment puppy arrives at home
    • Learn name, word “no” and praise words “good girl or good boy”
    • Owner’s voice is the best corrective tool
    • Never hit or threaten puppy
    • Puppies should be corrected swiftly
  • House-breaking:
    • Let puppies outside after eating and often throughout day
    • They will associate outside with going to bathroom
    • Paper training, use newspaper to train dogs to go bathroom in certain area, then move newspaper outside
serious training
Serious Training
  • After 6 months, puppies are ready for more intensive training
    • Once or twice a day for roughly 15-30 minutes
    • Equipment for training:
      • Choke collar
      • leash
grooming care
Grooming & Care
  • Hair coats- Daily brushing is recommended
    • Long haired dogs should be checked for mats and burrs which can get in hair behind ears and under legs. Can be teased with comb but may need cut out.
  • Bathing- only when extremely dirty.
        • Use mild soap, baby shampoo, or coconut-oil
  • Nails- should be trimmed regularly
    • Outside dogs naturally wear down nails
    • Do not cut nail bed because it will cause bleeding. Bleeding can be stopped through use of styptic pencil
  • Ears- need to be cleaned once a month. Only clean parts of ear that can be seen.
  • Eyes- can be cleaned with boric acid solution or other eyewash solutions.
    • Hunting dogs should have eyes checked after each hunting outing for irritants in their eyes.
  • Teeth- usually don’t decay but do develop plague and tartar leading to periodontal disease (tooth loss)
    • teeth should be cleaned once or twice a week.
    • Chewing keeps teeth clean and sharp.
c ommon diseases

Six common disease afflictions

    • Infectious disease
    • Noninfectious disease
    • Fungus disease
    • Internal parasites
    • External parasites
    • poisonings
Common diseases

Early warning signs:




Watery eyes

Runny nose


Loss of appetite


Loss of weight

Ravenous eating without gaining weight

Increased urination


Straining urinate

Labored breathing

Increased water intake



Obvious pain

Nervous symptoms

infectious disease
Infectious Disease
  • Canine distemper
    • Airborne virus that spreads through entire body damaging nervous system
    • Resulting in tremors or full-on epileptic fits which lead permanent nervous damage or death
    • Can be prevented with vaccinations at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. Then an annual vaccination afterwards.
  • Canine hepatitis
    • Virus spread dog to dog through urine or salvia in mouth
    • Dogs refuse to eat, body temperature increases, and swelling of head as well as neck occur
    • Dogs either recover or die within 2 weeks
  • Leptospirosis
    • Bacteria affection gotten from swimming in water or consuming food or water contaminated by rodent or other animal urine
    • Early signs: high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration
    • Disease attacks liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract
    • Treatment: antiboitics
  • Canine Parvovirus
    • ingestation of feces from infected dogs
    • Proper cleaning of kennel are essential to control spread of virus, which can exist for many months
  • Kennel Cough
    • Coughing, fever, and pneumonia
    • Usually happen in pet shops, shelters, etc
    • Untreated could damage respiratory system or cause death
infectious disease1
Infectious Disease
  • Rabies: viral disease attacks central nervous system, could cause death
    • found in wildlife and animals such as skunks, raccoons, foxes, and bats
    • “Furious” rabies: act strange, last 2 days, the goes to “mad stage” bites everything in path, foams at mouth, and dies in a few days
    • “Dumb” rabies: paralysis of jaw, and vitals, and then death
  • Coronavirus: virus causing vomiting and diarrhea. Highly contagious and spreads quickly through contaminated feces
  • Canine Brucellosis- world-wide bacterial disease.
    • In female, causes failure to whelp, enlarged lymph nodes, and lead to abortion
    • In males, scrotum swells , testes may atrophy
    • Transmitted through sexual intercourse and no medicine but can be treated with antibiotics
  • Canine herpesvirsus- virus spread through salvia, feces, and urine direct contact and usaully occurs in puppies 5 days- 18 days old leading to death.
  • Psuedorabies- in swine herds and dogs causing intensive itching, self-mutilation to relieve itching, convulsions, coma, death occurs 24-72 hours later.
noninfectious disease
Noninfectious Disease
  • Heart Disease- congenital and acquired
    • Moderate regularity in dogs
    • Signs: coughing, fainting, blue gums, panting, and large pendulous abdomen
  • Cataracts-cloudy lens leading to blindness
  • Glaucoma- pressure on eyeball causing irreversible damage to retina & optic nerve
  • Hip dysplasia- too much exercise, excess weight gain, and rapid growth.
    • Pain when rising or moving especially in cold weather
  • Arthritis- degenerate joint disease associated with old age and in large or obese dogs.
  • Tetanus- bacterial disease causing lockjaw, spastic paralysis, and death
  • Botulism- Through eating garage or rotting carcasses. Animal loses total muscle functioning
fungus diseases
Fungus Diseases
  • Ringworm- most common
    • Three fungal organisms
      • Microsporum Canis: direct contact with infected animal
      • Microsporum Gypseum: grows in infected soil
      • Trichophyton Mentagrophytes: found in infected rodents
    • Symptoms:
      • broken hairs around face, ears, or feet.
      • Reddening of skin, skin becomes thick and itchy
      • Creams, lotions, bath dips aide in healing
internal parasites
Internal Parasites
  • Roundworms- 4 to 8 inches when mature that live in small intestine of dogs less than 6 months old.
    • Caused by in gestation of eggs that hatch in dog’s stomach
    • Dog could be infested with 100 of roundworms, dog’s belly is often potbellied
    • Dogs infected with roundworms should be kept away from children.
  • Hook Worms- blood sucking parasites
    • Once attached to dogs develops into anemia . Gums appear white, and animal appears weak as well as listless.
    • Shedding eggs in dog feces. Can enter dogs through penetrating skin or being ingested in food or water
  • Whip Worms-
    • live in cecum,
    • produce football-shaped eggs pass in feces of infected dogs, and can remain in soil for years.
    • Symptoms watery feces with blood, dehydration, and untreated, death.
  • Tape Worms
    • Flat, segmented worms in small intestine.
    • Segments about the size of grain of rice, and can be seen on surface of feces
    • Not harmful, over –the-counter medicine can treat tape worms
  • Heart Worms
    • Live in heart and major arteries
    • Causes major damage to vital organs
    • Signs: coughing, sluggishness, and labored breathing
    • Transmitted through mosquitos , infection transfers through tissue of body to heart
    • OTC treatment can help heart worm
external parasites
External Parasites
  • Fleas- wingless, brown, bloodsucking insects that invade warm bodies.
    • Move fast on skin and usually found on rump as well as groin area
      • Bites and scratches around these areas are signs of flea allergy
    • Eggs, oval, white, and glistening, fall off host and fall in pet’s environment
    • Fleas can develop in as little as 16 days
  • Ticks- bloodsucking arthropod parasites with 4 life stages
    • Hard and soft ticks(leathery, live in ear canal)
      • Hard ticks: hard shields on their back
      • 13 species of hard ticks, Two are very important
        • The Brown Dog tick can survive indoors
          • Attach head to skin. Before removal ticks should be sprayed with insecticide or soaked with alcohol. Tweezers should be used to remove ticks. NOT cigarettes, lighters, gasoline, or kerosene .
        • American Dog tick live in grasses and shrubs
  • Lice- wingless insects, uncommon to dogs
    • Cause severe hair loss, scratching, and rubbing
    • Treatments should be 12 days apart
  • Mites- tiny arachnids parasitic on animals.
    • Mites are problem when their population increases rapidly
    • Localized and generalized forms
      • Local: patchy hair loss on head, forelegs and trunk
      • General: hair loss, reddening, and crusting on entire body.
    • Sarcoptic Mites: contagious burrow into skin (sarcoptic mange & scabies) causing severe itching.
    • Ear Mites:contagious mites found in outer ear and other areas.
      • Feed on wax and other things in ear
      • Symptoms vary, ear drops help but whole body should be treated by flea products
  • Insecticides
  • Plants:
    • poinsettia, Aloe Vera, mistletoe, rhododendrons, azaleas, iris, tulips, and daffodil cause mild intestinal problems
  • Household chemicals
    • Bleach, ammonia, pine oil, etc.
  • Herbicides:
    • used for killing weeds
  • Medications:
    • if taken improperly
  • Metal poisonings
    • Lead poisoningfrom eating paint chips, roofing shingles, or motor oil
  • Antifreeze
      • Sugary taste easily ingested by dogs
  • Treating animals that may or have been poisoned should be immediate
  • Estrus (Heat Period)
    • 6 to 12 months of age.
    • Terriers 6-9 months
    • Larger breeds 2 years of age
    • Occurs intervals of 7 months
  • Pro-estrus
    • lasts about nine days, precursor to Estrus
  • Gestation (pregnancy)
      • Lasts around 63 days
  • Colostrum
    • First milk produced by mother