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Veterinary Teaching Hospital Critical Care Unit. Introduction to Ergonomics in Animal Care Awareness Training Proposal. Critical Care Unit. Critical Care Unit Veterinary Teaching Hospital History of Work Related Injuries Back, knees Request for ergonomic evaluation & training

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critical care unit
Critical Care Unit
  • Critical Care Unit Veterinary Teaching Hospital
    • History of Work Related Injuries
      • Back, knees
  • Request for ergonomic evaluation & training
    • Requested by VTH Upper Administration
critical care unit1
Critical Care Unit
  • Multiple ergonomic evaluations have taken place in the past
  • Previous administration provided recommendations
    • No significant changes were made
  • Further modifications to the work environment were recommended
  • Training was recommended for staff at that time as well
problem need statement1
Problem/Need Statement
  • The environment of the critical care unit needs the appropriate worksite and process changes to help counteract the injury problem
  • Need for awareness training
    • Employees appear are unaware of appropriate use of work practice controls that may aide in injury prevention
problem need statement2
Problem/Need Statement
  • Currently, not all of the correct workplace controls are place to mitigate the identified problems
  • Workplace controls must be addressed
  • With budget constraints, the proper worksite modifications are unlikely
  • Awareness training is one way to help correct the injury problem
problem need statement3
Problem/Need Statement
  • Although training alone may not solve the injury problem completely, effective training can help teach employees to utilize the skills and avoid exposure to injury risk factors
problem need statement4
Problem/Need Statement
  • Time involved in managing injuries is a large burden
    • Adequate record keeping, case management, medical payment tracking
      • Costly and time consuming
  • Overall cost of injuries are elevated
problem need statement5
Problem/Need Statement
  • Employees in the critical care unit support the need for the appropriate worksite modification and awareness training
  • In drastic injury cases, an employee may be forced to change careers and find alternative work because of disability resulting from injury
    • Injuries impact work and personal time/hobbies
problem need statement6
Problem/Need Statement
  • Because of nature of the work performed in the environment it is being performed, the existence of barriers to ideal workplace modifications are apparent
    • Awareness training is highly warranted
audience analysis1
Audience Analysis
  • Although multiple ergonomic evaluations and worksite visits have been performed CCU in the past, a more thorough audience analysis was conducted to aide the instructional design process.
  • Results of the analysis were used to write appropriate goals and objectives for the training course
audience analysis2
Audience Analysis
  • The audience analysis questionnaire was modified several times throughout the instructional design process in order to ensure appropriate and effective information would be attained
audience analysis questionnaire
Audience Analysis Questionnaire
  • The designed questionnaire consisted of 10 total questions
  • Questions used to determine level of ergonomics knowledge, experience on the job, previous injury, etc
  • See handout
audience analysis3
Audience Analysis
  • Survey Monkey was used to administer the analysis questionnaire
  • Initially, only 3 of 14 employees responded online
  • Because responses were low, hard copies were taken and physically administered to CCU staff
  • Ultimately, 11 out of 14 total employees responded to the audience analysis questionnaire
audience analysis results
Audience Analysis Results

Ergonomics Knowledge Background

  • Respondents have a beginner’s level of ergonomics

Animal Care Work Experience

  • All employees have at least 5 years experience
    • 45.5% of employees had 15 or more years experience
    • 36.4% of employees had 11-15 years of experience
    • 18.2% employees had 6-10 years of experience
audience analysis results1
Audience Analysis Results

Work Related Injuries Experienced

  • 9.1% (1 out of the 11) of employees experienced 0 injuries when dealing specifically with animal care
    • 90.9% of employees experienced responded that they have had at least 1 injury
    • 2 employees (18.2%) reported that they have experienced 1-2 injuries
    • 3 employees (27.3%) have experienced 3-4 injuries
    • 5 employees (45.5%) have experienced 5 or more injuries while caring for or handling animals
audience analysis results2
Audience Analysis Results

Pain/Discomfort Experienced While on the Job

  • All eleven employees (100%) reported experiencing at least on instance where they experienced pain or discomfort which they felt was related to caring for or handling animals
    • 63.6% reported they have experienced pain or discomfort 5 or more times
audience analysis results3
Audience Analysis Results

Use of Ergonomics on the Job in the Past

  • Results to question 5 were not as expected
    • 72% of employees said that they have used ergonomics in the past while caring for animals

Further elaboration of this question would have been useful to provide additional insight

audience analysis results4
Audience Analysis Results

Sacrificing Personal Health and Safety

  • 18.2% of employees feel they only sacrifice their health and safety to care for an animal 0-10% of the day,
    • 9.1% (1 employee) felt this is done 11-25% of the day
    • 18.2% (2 employees) reported this is done 26-50% of the day
    • 54.6% (6 employees) responded this is done 51-75% or 76-100% of the day
audience analysis results5
Audience Analysis Results

Defining Ergonomics Risk Factors

  • Question asked in essay form
    • Many employees responded that they did not understand the question
    • Common answers or themes were that the question was not understood, the question was confusing
    • It is possible that the question was poorly worded
      • Employees who understood the question responded with expected answers including, bending, lifting and manipulating animals

Further expansion of this question may have been useful. It may however be that employees do not know what ergonomics injury risk factors are

audience analysis results6
Audience Analysis Results

Barriers to Implementing Ergonomics

  • Question asked in essay form
      • Responses - time, money, emergency situations, and unpredictable patients
      • Responses were somewhat expected and create barriers to effective training
      • Issues in the work environment may prohibit ergonomics training from being as effective
audience analysis results7
Audience Analysis Results

Physically Demanding Aspects of Job

  • Question asked in essay form
    • Responses surround dealing with large animals of large size, long work durations, and awkward postures with high levels of stress
    • Many of these issues, especially long work durations may not be modifiable and will create additional challenges
    • Asking employees if and how these barriers could be modified would have been beneficial to gain a greater understanding of this issue
audience analysis results8
Audience Analysis Results

Perception of Ergonomics in Animal Care

  • Over 80% of employees responded that ergonomics is either important or very important (54.5% and 27.3% respectively)
    • Remaining 18.2% reported they were neutral on their personal opinion of ergonomics in the field of animal care

Further expansion of this question may have been useful. Asking why employees rated the response the way they did would have provided further insight

audience analysis results9
Audience Analysis Results
  • After conducting the audience analysis, it was determined that initial assumptions were incorrect
  • Without the inclusion of this valuable step in the instructional design process, the training design may have been inappropriate
  • Course goals and objectives were based off of results of Audience Analysis
goals objectives1
Goals & Objectives
  • The written goals & objectives were modified throughout the instructional design process as additional information was gathered
  • Final goals & objectives are to follow
goals objectives2
Goals & Objectives
  • Employees are more aware of ergonomic issues
    • List basic ergonomics principles and discuss reasons why each principle can be utilized on the job
    • List the signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and discuss why early reporting of signs and symptoms is important
    • Recall impact of injuries to work and personal time
    • When given a description or picture of an occupational injury risk factor in the workplace, the learner will be able to recognize the risk factor and suggest a method to control or eliminate exposure to the injury risk factor
goals objectives3
Goals & Objectives
  • Effectively use ergonomic hazard control equipment & techniques in the workplace
    • When moving a large heavy animal from the floor to the exam table, describe at least one ergonomics hazard control strategy that can be used on the job to avoid injury and discuss why this strategy would be most beneficial
    • Demonstrate the use of an ergonomics engineering control, administrative control and work practice control
goals objectives4
Goals & Objectives
  • Employees will be more innovative with regard to using ergonomics on the job
    • When presented with an ergonomic hazard when no specific ergonomic tool is present, the learner will be able to propose an innovative solution
goals objectives5
Goals & Objectives
  • Design of the course was geared to meet the goals and objectives
  • These will help ensure learning of basic ergonomics will occur
course assessment1
Course Assessment
  • The course assessment consists of 3 different parts
    • Questions were written to ensure the goals and objectives of the course are met
    • Written Test
    • In Class Checklist
    • Jobsite Checklist
course assessment2
Course Assessment
  • Test Questions are written to ensure learners meet written objectives 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d(i) 2a, 3a
course assessment3
Course Assessment
  • The simple in class checklists was developed to help ensure that during instruction, learner progress is tracked and objectives 1d(ii), 2b are met
course content1
Course Content
  • See syllabus handout
  • Includes outline of course
  • Sample course slides to follow
    • Not all slides are included
types of msd s
Types of MSD’s
  • Carpal Tunnel
  • Tendonitis & bursitis
  • Tenosynovitis
  • Epicondlyitis
  • Trigger Finger
  • Back strain, herniated disc
  • Etc
why should i report early
Why should I report early?
  • Acute injuries can easily become chronic injuries
    • Can lead to disability, even surgery!
  • Early treatment is more successful
  • Report signs & symptoms
  • Think about ergonomic solutions
ergonomics definitions
Ergonomics Definitions
  • Designing the job to fit the worker, notforcing the worker to fit the job
  • Make physically demanding job tasks as easy on the body as possible!
engineering controls
Engineering Controls
  • Eliminating the Problem
    • These controls help eliminate injury risk exposure
    • These controls are ideal!
      • Sometimes difficult to implement
identify the risk factors
Identify the Risk Factors




ideal solutions
Ideal Solutions
  • Don’t lift
course evaluation plan1
Course Evaluation Plan
  • Evaluation plan includes formative and summative evaluations
course evaluation
Course Evaluation
  • Information gathered will be shared with upper management
    • Illustrate how participants felt about the course and whether it was beneficial
  • Managers of the CCU will be included
    • Buy-in is crucial
formative evaluation
Formative Evaluation
  • Included throughout the 2-hour course
    • Results incorporated near end of course
  • Evaluation to include simple questions including:
    • Any specific questions from learners
    • Issues or concerns
  • Depending on responses, a more detailed discussion with the class may be needed
formative evaluation1
Formative Evaluation
  • At the half way point of the class, additional formative evaluation questions will be asked.
  • Questions to include:
    • Is class helpful thus far?
    • Is the class to basic?
    • Is the class to advanced?
    • How is the class going overall?
  • Additional discussion near the end of the course will take place to address the responses from learners
summative evaluation
Summative Evaluation
  • Hard copy evaluations will be provided immediately following the course
  • See handout
  • Includes copy of summative evaluation
course delivery
Course Delivery
  • Course will be ready to present early December 2011
  • Follow up observation will take place periodically after the course
ergonomic evaluation1
Ergonomic Evaluation
  • Although awareness training is valuable, changes to the work environment are also necessary
  • Ergonomic evaluation results reveal a risk for injury. Ergonomic engineering controls are needed to reduce risk for injury
ergonomic evaluation2
Ergonomic Evaluation
  • Changes needed include:
    • Height adjustable cages
    • Lift tables/carts
    • Cage modifications
    • Slings
    • Anti-fatigue mats
    • Shoes
    • Cage Drawers

See Ergonomic Evaluation Report for recommendation details

  • Frank Gonzales
    • 491-2724