Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement in the United States and Introduction to Global Environmental Politics. “Environmental Justice”. Robert Figueroa Claudia Mills. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Created by the Revised Clean Air Act, 1970.
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Robert Figueroa Claudia Mills
1. Who should set these?
2. Who should be protected?
3. What should standards measure?
4. How do we get people, companies, and governments to comply?
5. What should be the punishment for non-compliance?
These questions might not be easily answered in terms of distributive justice.
1. National Wildlife Federation
2. Izaak Walton League
3. National Audubon Society
4. Sierra Club
5. Wilderness Society
6. National Resources Defense Council
7. Environmental Defense Fund
8. Environmental Policy Center
9. Friends of the Earth
10. National Parks and Conservation Association
By the 1980s, a new type of grassroots environmentalism had clearly arrived in the U.S.
1. Distributive Justice: How should environmental burdens and benefits be distributed?
And there’s also:
2. Procedural Justice: What are fair and equitable procedures for making distribution decisions?
Slogan of the EJ Movement:
“We speak for ourselves.”
Many cases of environmental injustice involve a violation of informed consent.
a. Free of compulsion and threats
b. There are comparable alternatives
“The Environmental Justice Movement provides a bottom-up challenge to this paradigm.”
Need to address:
James Gustave Speth Peter M. Haas
1. Private Voluntary Responses: corporations and
consumers see it in their own best long-term
interests to protect the environment.
2. Government Responses: governments use their
powers to tax, spend, and regulate to protect the environment.
a. Unilateral responses
b. Multilateral customs (“soft law”)
c. Multilateral conventions/treaties (“hard law”)