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What Have We Learned about Technology Applications and Assistive Technology Research? Class 2: Assistive, Instructional, and Administrative Applications of Technology/Spring, 2008. Looking Back…….

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What Have We Learned about Technology Applications and Assistive Technology Research?Class 2: Assistive, Instructional, and Administrative Applications of Technology/Spring, 2008
  • Looking Back……

“For most of us, technology makes things easier. For a person with a disability, it makes things possible.”J. Heumann

groundbreaking public policy document
Groundbreaking Public Policy Document
  • OTA Report:
    • Technology and Handicapped People
      • (U.S.Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1982).
How do you see this type of evolution in comparison with today’s approach to building on evidence-based practices?How do we continue to scale-up and capture the potential of technology for individuals with disabilities?
ii hannaford 1993
II. Hannaford (1993)
  • “Much of what is presented as being known about the use of computers with exceptional persons is actually what is believed, felt, or hoped. While there is an increasing amount of research and evaluation support associated with various uses of technology, there is still relatively little empirical support for many statements found in the popular literature”.
the pre computer age continuum
The Pre Computer Age Continuum

pre computer milestones
Pre Computer Milestones

1808 Precursor of Braille/raised dots for sending military messages at night

1834 Braille Code developed—6 dot system

1892 Braille Typewriter

1900 Electrical amplifying device for individuals who were hard of hearing

1928 Radios given to citizens who are blind; seeing eye dogs introduced

1934 Printed visagraph—to enlarge print

1947 Perkins Brailler; printing large type books

1953 Megascope: project and magnify printed materials

1960 Teaching machines and programmed learning

1966 The laser cane is developed

1972 Pocket size braille writer

1974 Braille calculator

1975 Talking calculator

the reading machine then
The Reading Machine: Then

Source: Popular Science Monthly, June 1932


"FOR the first time blind persons may actually 'see' pictures and read newsprint and typewritten letters, through the 'visible.‘

Source: Time Magazine, 1931

Reading Machine

Monday, Apr. 27, 1931

The visagraph works as follows: slim beams of light are reflected from a printed page into a selenium cell which translates the blank and printed patches into various electrical frequencies. The currents operate electromagnets which drive pins against a sheet of aluminum. The aluminum progressively becomes embossed with letters as the master light roves across the original page. The blind thereby can feel the upcoming words almost as fast as the eye can see.

the reading machine now
The Reading Machine Now

impact of computers
Impact of Computers
  • Computer assisted and multimedia instruction for children with learning difficulties
  • Synthetic speech for non-vocal children
  • Assistive and adaptive equipment for those with physical disabilities, sensory impairments, communication disorders, and learning disabilities
  • Translation of printed text into spoken text for people with visual impairments and reading disabilities
impact of computers1
Impact of Computers
  • Use of virtual reality to train students how to operate wheelchairs
  • Computer-generated IEPs
  • Computerized databases of information about assistive technologies
  • Devices to enable the enlargement of text materials for those with visual impairments
  • Voice recognition systems to enable people who cannot write to produce written text
impact of computers2
Impact of Computers
  • Searchable databases related to special education literature and related services
  • Robotic arms that can be used to assist people who are paralyzed
  • Robust performance support technologies
  • Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf (TDD)
impact of computers3
Impact of Computers
  • Multimedia/interactive video
  • UDL
  • Internet/websites/web. 2.0 tools
no tech
No Tech
  • Systematic teaching routines, procedures or contributions of related services personnel—PT or OT
low tech
Low Tech
  • Adapted spoon handles, Velcro fasteners, raised desks
  • Mid Tech (videos, DVDs, RFBD tools, projection devices)
high tech
High Tech
  • Computers, interactive multi-media systems
  • Performance support applications
  • When planning….start with no/low tech and move up—to enable a student to function in as many environments as possible.
back in time
Back in Time……..
  • Mid 60’s trend emerged—concept of instructional technology.
  • 1970s—Technology involved more than just hardware
back in time1
Back in Time……
  • 1980s
    • IT further defined in a comprehensive review
      • Blackhurst & Hofmeister
  • Review identified two types of technology applications in special education
    • Media technology
      • focus on devices
    • Systems technology
      • systematic approach to instruction
back in time2
Back in Time…..
  • 1990s
    • Rapid growth of microcomputer technology
    • Increased research on instructional procedures
    • Continuous invention of new devices to aid individuals with health problems, physical disabilities, and sensory impairments
21 st century
21st Century
  • Six Types of Technology (Blackhurst & Lahm, 2000)
    • Technology of Teaching
    • Instructional Technology
    • Assistive Technology
    • Medical Technology
    • Technology Productivity Tools
    • Information Technology
technologies of teaching
Technologies of Teaching

Instructional approaches

that are systematically designed and applied in precise ways

instructional technology
Instructional Technology
  • More than just projection devices, equipment, video recorders—more than just hardware.
  • In addition to devices, IT involves a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching.
assistive technology
Assistive Technology
  • AT employs various types of services and devices to help people with disabilities function within the environment.
medical technology
Medical Technology
    • as knowledge expands and computer chips become more powerful and smaller remarkable medical technologies will continue to emerge.
technology productivity tools
Technology Productivity Tools
  • Computer software, hardware, and related systems that enable people to work more effectively and efficiently.
information technology
Information Technology
  • Provides access to knowledge and resources on a wide range of topics
    • Clearinghouses, portals, learning communities, etc.
major federal initiatives
Major Federal Initiatives
  • P.L. 94-142 (1975)/IDEA
    • Required AT to be considered for each student with an IEP.
    • School personnel required to develop policies and procedures for meeting this provision of the law.
  • P.L. 99-506 (1986)/Sec 508
    • Amended Rehab Act of 1973 adding Section 508.
      • Required access to computers and other electronic office equipment in places of federal employment.
  • P. L. 100-407 (1988)/Tech Act
    • Provided funding for statewide systems and services to provide AT devices and services to individuals with disabilities; includes outreach to parents
      • Conduct needs assessments, identify technology resources, provide AT services and conduct public awareness programs
    • Provided definitions of AT and other devices and services
  • P. L. 101-336 American Disabilities Act (1990)
    • Broadened definition of those who are considered to have disabilities. Broadened agencies and employers covered by Sec. 508 requirements
      • Mandates additional protections
        • Accessible public transportation systems
        • Communication systems
        • Access to public buildings
idea 2004
IDEA 2004
  • Assistive technology device
    • Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
idea 20041
IDEA 2004
  • Assistive technology service
    • Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.
seimc network
SEIMC Network
  • 1964 funding for two prototype Special Education Instructional Materials Centers (SEIMCs) to explore ways to make instructional technologies more accessible to special education teachers.
    • National network established
    • Disbanded but with a strong legacy:
      • CEC journal—Teaching Exceptional Children (1968)
      • Association for Special Education Technology (1972)
      • Special Education Technology (JSET) (1978)
      • Technology and Media (CEC Division) (1984):
        • Publishes JSET