Big Questions!!! • What is the main goal of Southern settlers? • What is the main goal of Northern settlers? • Be able to explain why and how the North and the South develop differently. • Why is the relationship between England and the colonies already starting to become fragile?
Europe is Finally Growing • What was Europe recovering from by the 15th century? • How would a massive increase in population influence Europe? -Land values increase -Prosperity= Landlords want more land. -Trade increases -Rise in government power.
Europe is Changing Portugal- First to finance a long voyage -Start Slave Trade in Africa -Columbus- Finally endorsed by Spain -Takes 3 ships (Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria) -Lands in the Bahamas CONSEQUENCE???
Spain & the 3 G’s • Conquistadores- Claim the whole world • Given encomiendas- • 1518- Cortez & 600 in Mexico • Aztecs defeat them initially • Smallpox takes over
Spain & the Pope • Pope Innocent VIII Treaty with Spain • Goal-Assimilate Natives
Spain & the Americas Impact of combining two cultures • Disease • Extermination by Conquistadores • Spread Christianity • New crops and domestic livestock • Europe- New crops and gold+silver
Spanish finale in America • Florida- 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon Why go to Florida? • Left quickly because of hardship • French threatened Spanish ships, Menendez de Aviles pushed them out and established St. Augustine in 1565, earliest European founded city.
Spanish finale in America • Spanish moved to New Mexico to find silver and spread Christianity -Met resistance -Increased gold supply by over 500 percent, and became the richest nation in Europe
English going to America • Why leave England? • What will the goal be for those going to the south?
How do they get permission? • Charter- Eachcolony was given a charter (document granting special privileges) • Corporate colonies- operated by joint-stock company. Ex: Jamestown • Royal colonies- Under direct authority and rule of the king’s government. Ex: Virginia • Proprietary colonies- Under authority of individuals given charters by the king. Ex: Maryland, Pennsylvania
How do they get the $ • Joint-Stock Companies- Investors pool money to support a colony, but only if they received a charter. • Colonization- When one country takes control over another society and establishes a colony there.
Money Makin Mentality Mercantilism • An economic policy that views the control of trade as the most important factor in a nations prosperity. • Inc nation’s total wealth, but your limited by your nation What should they do then?
First English Settlements Nationalism -Sir Francis Drake- “Sea Dogs” Raid Spanish merchant ships (1560-1605) -Spanish Armada retaliate and fail • Why is this a big deal?
The 3 Ships that were real, did have names, and were important! Godspeed, Discovery, and Susan Constant • Landed on Jamestown, which became the first enduring colony in America.
Labor Shortage In Virginia Introduced Headright System- Pay for a voyage to America, get 50 acres. • Import Indentured Servants from England. • Native Americans • Slavery- 1619- Dutch ship brought first Africans over. 1650 only 400 African slaves in Viriginia.
Issues with the Natives • 1622- English in Virginia started to become less friendly to Natives. • Costly attacks by the Powhatan Indians left Virginia Company broke. • James I revoked the charter and made it a Royal Charter.
Bacon’s Rebellion (Virginia) • William Berkeley- Governor set up harsh taxes and used them for his own good. Controlled the Virginia House of Burgesses. • -Mostly hurt poorer settlers. • Native American issues continued to rise and nothing was being done. • Nathaniel Bacon- decided to raise a militia and fight the Native Americans himself. • Berkeley declared this group illegal. • The rebellion continued and they even set Jamestown on fire. • Bacon died and the rebellion stopped.
Rebellion Consequences Lasting Disputes • Sharp class differences between wealthy planters and landless or poor farmers • Colonial resistance to royal control.
Big Brother England • Acts of Trade and Navigation • - Mercantilist policy with a series of Navigation Acts (1650-1673) 1)Trade to and from the colonies could be carried only by English ships and operated by English crews 2)All goods imported to the colonies could only pass through English ports 3)Specified goods from the colonies could only be exported to England. Ex: Tobacco
Positive Effects • New England shipbuilding prospered • Chesapeake tobacco had a monopoly in Europe • English military forces protected the colonies from potential attacks from the French and Spanish
Negative Effects 1) Colonial manufacturing was severely limited. 2)Chesapeake farmers received low prices for their crops. 3)Colonists had to pay high prices for manufactured goods from England. • *How do you think the colonists respond to these effects? • *What does Bacon’s Rebellion foreshadow about the future?
Indecisive England • Reformation leads to Protestantism • King Henry VIII leaves Catholic Church (1534) • Mary- Rejoins Catholic Church (1553) • Elizabeth- Leaves Catholic Church (1559) • James- Divine rule- Strongly favored Catholicism
Can I get an Amen? • Puritans- Purify the Church of England • Separatists- Leave the Church Ex: Pilgrims
Off to New England Pilgrims -Founded Plymouth Colony in 1620 • Puritans 1630- Arrive at Massachusetts Bay Colony First Governor, John Winthrop hoped to be a “City upon a hill”
Dissent in the Community • Roger Williams (Started Rhode Island) • Treat Natives Fairly • No Punishment for religious beliefs Why does that sound familiar? • Ann Hutchinson- Challenged the religious beliefs.
England and Ireland • 1560 & 1570 • England colonizes Ireland • Irish “savages” • Brutal and indecent to Irish • Create plantations in Ireland
Troubles with the Natives • Pequot War -Connecticut 1637 • King Philip’s war -1675 1/10th of colonial men in New England killed
Maryland King Charles I -Create proprietorships instead of corporate colonies WHY? • Act of Toleration- English Catholics allowed for religious freedom to all Christians. • Protestant Revolt- Repeal of Act of Toleration
Connecticut • Reverend Thomas Hooker- Led Puritans in 1636 • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) – Legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by that legislature.
New England Confederation • 1640’s • Military Alliance • Fight off threats from Natives, the Dutch, and the French.
New York • Charles II • Close gap between New England and Chesapeake colonies. Was colonized by the Dutch. • Gave the colonies to James II • Ordered taxes, duties, and rents • Met strong opposition
Pennsylvania and Delaware Quakers- Non-violent, equality for all men and women. Religious authority in individuals soul. William Penn- Inherited land grant in 1681 3 Hopes in new colony 1)Religious refuge for those persecuted 2) Enact liberal ideas in government 3) Generate income and profits for himself
Georgia • Funded by British • Created for 2 reasons • 1)Buffer the Carolinas • 2)Send imprisoned from England over to Georgia.
Dominion of New England • James II 1685 • Attempts to unite New York, New Jersey, and New England Colonies • Sent Sir Edmund Andros to be governor. • Levied Taxes, limited town meetings, and revoked land titles. • Glorious Revolution in 1688- Led to his fall from power.
Ch.3 Industrial North & Agricultural South
We will follow through, sometimes… • English attempt to enforce Navigation Acts 1)Smuggling trials by English judges 2) Board of trade * Salutary Neglect- Relaxed enforcement, IF the $ kept coming.
Self- Government: Controlled by Britian Government = Governor and Local Assembly • Governors appointed by Britain • Local assembly (elected by land-owning whites) • Governor can… 1)Call or disband assembly 2) Appoint or dismiss judges 3) Control colonial trade
Agricultural South • Driven by cash crops • Plantations, not towns Why? Charles Town- Most thriving southern city
No Southern Hospitality for Women • Women considered second-class citizens • No voting or preaching • Little Education • Main job- Rear children and domestic affairs
Slavery 1) Reduced immigration 2)Dependable work force 3)Cheap Labor • Slave Laws • Massachusetts- 1st to recognize slavery of “lawful” captives. • Virginia- 1661- Children inherit slavery
Triangular Trade • 1)Ship of rum from New England to West Africa and traded for slaves. • 2) Middle Passage- Slaves to West Indies and traded for a cargo of sugarcane. • 3) Ship with sugarcane would return to New England.
OlaudahEquiano • “The closeness of the place, the heat of the climate, added to the number in the Ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died.”
Africans enslaved, but not without a fight! Stono Rebellion 1739 20 slaves in Charles Town Killed several planter families White militia put the rebellion down. Significance: Tightened slave laws!!!
Commercial North Lifestyle • Merchants- Most powerful group • Boston, NYC, and Philadelphia- Major port cities • Northern population- Diverse • Slavery did exist in the North (Some Rights)
Salem Witch Trials • Hysteria over witchcraft • 20 killed and 150 imprisoned • Faulty accusations
Enlightenment • 1700’s- knowledge movement based on reason and the scientific method. • Example: Ben Franklin Consequences: • Great public education • Emphasis on human reasoning.