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Rejecting Liberalism. 30-2 Chapter 7. “Communism is a classless society in which all people share in the production of goods...” Karl Marx . Communism: Rejecting Liberalism. Communism differs from democratic socialism in that communism promotes revolutionary rather than

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rejecting liberalism

Rejecting Liberalism

30-2 Chapter 7

“Communism is a classless society in which all people

share in the production of goods...” Karl Marx

communism rejecting liberalism
Communism:Rejecting Liberalism

Communism differs from democratic socialism in

that communism promotes revolutionary rather than

gradual change.

contrasting communists
Contrasting Communists

There are different forms of communism. Past

communist leaders have governed through their own

interpretation of Marx :


Early, revolutionary USSR, under Lenin.


Absolute control through fear & oppression.


China’s interpretation of communism under Emperor



Social Ideas

Political Ideas

Economic Ideas

  • Workers overthrow the
  • wealthy.
  • The Communist Party will
  • govern in the interest of all.
  • Less hierarchy in govn’t.
  • Collective govn’t will better
  • represent the people.
  • Collective ownership of the means of production (land, resources, capital.)
  • No Private Property.
  • Incomes are equalized.
  • Society is classless.
  • Women will have
  • equal rights.
  • Cooperation not
  • competition.
czar alexander ii 1818 1881
Czar Alexander II (1818-1881)

Russia wasn’t able to take full

advantage of the Industrial

Revolution b/c it lacked ice free

water routes to important

markets. It also lagged behind

other industrial countries because

it was mostly made up of

subsistence agriculture.

Alexander II introduced a series of

liberal reforms to help the economy.

Alexander II

Liberal Reforms for Russia

  • Freed the serfs who were like slaves to wealthy landowners.
  • Abolished capital punishment.
  • Created local govn’ts with representatives from all classes who had input on things like taxation and education.
Some felt Alexander did not go far enough.

A number of revolutionary socialist groups formed in an

effort to assassinate Alexander II and after several

attempts they got him in 1881.

the rise of socialism in russia
The Rise of Socialism in Russia

Russia’s industrial growth advanced for a short period of

time as foreign investors looked for opportunities in

Russia. Rapid growth led to the same issues that were

seen in industrial Europe…

Widening of the income gap,

the rich getting richer off the

backs of the poor, and the

poor quality of life of the

working class.

the socialist democratic labour party sdlp 1898
The Socialist Democratic Labour Party(SDLP 1898)

This was a group of Marxist socialists who wanted

revolutionary change for Russia. They were inspired by the

writings of Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto.

Czar Nicholas II banned the group and many were forced

to exile. They did pass along their message through an

underground newspaper.

Key figures of the group included Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin.

growing socialist unrest
Growing Socialist Unrest

Nicholas II was seen as not

doing enough to end the

suffering of the poor. In

January of 1905, people

gathered at the palace to

protest. The Czar’s guards

opened fire…

Bloody Sunday.

This event inspired revolt around the country.

the first stage of russia s revolution october 1905
The First Stage of Russia’s RevolutionOctober 1905

In October 1905, the

St Petersburg Soviet Council

was formed. It pushed

Nicholas to sign the October

Manifesto allowing the

formation of political parties

as well as giving certain rights

to the people.

The popularity of socialism grew among Russians.


The Russian Revolution took off in 1917 in the last

stages of WWI. Nicholas was assassinated and a

provisional government

under Kerensky was set

up. This was a liberal

democratic government

that struggled to have

real power in Russia.

End P1

lenin the bolshevik party
LeninThe Bolshevik Party

Vladimir Lenin gained political popularity

with the people. He wanted Russia out of

WWI and wanted government to focus on

meeting the needs of the people.

Lenin and Leon Trotsky successfully

established a new Marxist style of

government which later became known as


red terror
Red Terror

An assassination attempt on Lenin resulted

in a crack down on political enemies. Many

were tortured and executed. Civil war


ussr 1922

Order was re-established and The Union of

Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was

formed. Lenin was the leader.

ussr 1922 the people s republic
USSR1922: The People’s Republic

Land was redistributed to the people.

Factories were turned over to the workers.

Both men and women were considered equal.

The poor and working classes had more power than they had ever


1924: Lenin dies of a stroke. Russia would experience a new form of

communism under Stalin.

joseph stalin
Joseph Stalin

After Lenin’s death, a struggle for

power took place b/w Trotsky and

Stalin. Trotsky’s political beliefs

were similar to Lenin’s.

By 1928, Stalin emerged as the

new leader of USSR. Stalin had

Trotsky exiled and assassinated.


Stalin’s interpretation of

Marxist ideas included

himself as an absolute ruler.

His policies usually involved

fear and oppression rather

than revolution and

freedom. He rejected all

liberal values. He turned

USSR into a dictatorship.

Millions would die under

his rule.

stalin policies
Stalin Policies
  • Created Gulags (Prison camps) for those who opposed him.
  • Secret police used to control the people by terror.
  • Rewriting of history to display a state view of Russian history.
  • Private farms taken by force for collective use.
holodomor planned famine to suppress ukrainian opposition
HolodomorPlanned famine to suppress Ukrainian opposition

1932-33 Ukraine experienced a drought.

Stalin with held grain supplies in what is

now considered to be a planned famine.

Somewhere b/w 7 & 10 million starved. The

government recognizes Holodomor as an

act of genocide. Stalin did this to ruthlessly

crush opposition from the state.

rejecting liberalism1
Rejecting Liberalism
  • Political Ideas
  • Cult of the leader and elite rule.
  • Extreme nationalism.
  • Organized violence and military force.
  • Territorial expansion as national interest

Nazi Fascism

  • Economic Ideas
  • Government directed private enterprise
  • economy to serve the needs of the state.
  • Anti-union and anti-workers’ rights.
  • Social Ideas
  • Inequalities b/w individuals & groups.
  • Racial purity.
  • Racial/national superiority.
  • National strength more important than
  • individuals.
Fascism became popular in Germany & Italy after WWI.

Fascists saw liberal governments as weak, unstable and unable to solve social, economic and political problems.

Fascists believe in domination of their state over others.

They are aware of ethnic & cultural differences.

Domination of other peoples through discipline, obedience and the creation of an all powerful state.

Fascism rejects some parts of liberalism:

  • Against democracy & individual rights.
  • Rejected liberal political ideas.

Fascism rejects some parts of communism:

  • Against egalitarianism and empowerment of the working class.
  • Rejected communist economic ideas.
charles darwin 1809 82
Charles Darwin:(1809-82)

Proposed theories on animal evolution through the survival

of the fittest.

social darwinism
Social Darwinism

Some thought his ideas applied to societies, cultures and races.

This is where Social Darwinism comes from. Groups achieve power

and affluence over others because they are naturally stronger.

Governments who interfere with this are disrupting the natural order

of life. Natural inequalities exist among peoples.

eugenics the improvement of the human species through selective breeding or genocide
EugenicsThe improvement of the human species through selective breeding or genocide.

Fascists of the time used these

ideas to justify their policies of

discrimination and violence against

undesirable groups in society…

(people with illnesses, mental or

physical disabilities, etc.)

Fascists wanting to strengthen their

nation state used the theory

“survival of the fittest” to go after

other countries. They believed that

there was a struggle of survival b/w


fascism in germany
Fascism in Germany

Germany was charged as the aggressors at the end

of WWI. The Treaty of Versailles was very punitive in

its treatment of Germany.

  • They lost territory including lucrative colonies in Africa.
  • Fined $4.5 Billion US to pay for damages in Europe which had to be paid quickly.
  • Charged another $18 Billion with interest after the 1st fine was paid off.

Germany never paid it back…

the great depression
The Great Depression

Germany was slowly being crushed by all it had lost. It didn’t have the

means to take care of those who suffered b/c of WWI. Many people

starved. The German government started printed off money in large

numbers causing hyperinflation.

Their money became worthless.

Unemployment went through

the roof. Then the world was hit

by the Great Depression. Things

worsened b/c of protectionism.

the nazis the national socialist german workers party
The Nazis:The National Socialist German Workers Party

Economic chaos led to political chaos in Germany. Political

parties formed wanting change… including the Nazi Party.

Economic & political change was needed but the people did not want

revolutionary communism. Those who lost entire life savings were open to ideas

that rejected liberalism by the 1920’s.

the rise of hitler
The Rise of Hitler

Hitler established himself as a

leader among the members of the

Nazi Party in the 1920’s. He

convinced the members that they

needed to seize power by force. He

was arrested and jailed after a

radical stunt he pulled in a beer hall.

He stood on a table and called for

the people to rise against the

existing government. While in jail he

wrote, “Mein Kampf”, which

outlined his fascist vision for a new


The Nazi Party gained in popularity as Hitler promised a return to

greatness. He found scapegoats to blame Germany’s failures and used his

charisma to win over the public.

Hitler did what he could to make

people fearful of rival political

parties through lies and

propaganda. He focused hatred

and blame against minorities. He

used fear tactics at every

opportunity to gain popularity

and support.

hitler in power
Hitler in Power

It wasn’t long before Hitler was elected as chancellor. A

short time after that, the Nazis had control of parliament.

Hitler passed the Enabling Act which basically wiped out all

opposition parties in Germany. Germany became a

dictatorship, and Hitler was in absolute control.

hitler the dictator
Hitler the Dictator

Hitler manipulated his people to buy into his fascist ideas

through a number of things:

  • Propaganda
  • Youth groups
  • Elimination of opposition (Enabling Act)
  • Using fear, terror and force on his own people.
  • Blamed nation’s failures on the Jews, communists, and the former government… scapegoating
rejecting liberalism2
Rejecting Liberalism

Hitler persuaded his people to reject liberal

values and took away the rights of the

people that didn’t fit into his vision of a

strong Germany.

Jews were Hitler’s main

target of blame. He detailed his hatred of

Jews in Mein Kampf and ruthlessly

persecuted them throughout WWII.

nuremberg laws
Nuremberg Laws

Hitler passed these laws in 1935 which focus on the persecution of the Jews as well as the preservation of the “Master Race”, Aryan Germans.

"I am the greatest pig in town - I have affairs with Jews only." This scene, organized for the press in Hamburg in 1935, appeared in all German newspapers. The man's sign says: "I only take German girls to my room." The Nuremberg laws of 1935 criminalized sexual relations between Jews and "Aryans."

night of the broken glass
Night of the Broken Glass

A German solder was assassinated by a 17 yr old Jewish boy during

Germany’s occupation of Paris, France. This action sparked riots

throughout Germany.

Germans went on a killing rampage chasing after Jews and Jewish

supporters. Many were beaten and killed. 30,000 were sent to

concentration camps… this became known as the Holocaust.

Over 6 million Jews would be victimized before the end on WWII.

Nazism rejected the political beliefs of

liberalism by creating a dictatorship that

limited people’s freedoms.

Individuals were not valued unless they

were serving the state.