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Public Relations. Early Development in PR. P.T. Barnum. Early Development in PR. Buffalo Bill. JUMBO. JUMBO IS PUBLICIZED. JUMBO DIES. JUMBO LIVES ON THROUGH PUBLICITY. Tufts Jumbo. U.S. RAILWAYS. Early Development in PR. Modern PR Agents

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Early Development in PR

  • Modern PR Agents

    • “Poison Ivy” Lee had John D. Rockefeller as a client

      (Ivy Ledbetter Lee)


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Early Development in PR

  • Modern PR Agents

    • Standard Oil/Ludlow Colorado

      • Terrible working conditions

      • Ida Tarbell/Standard Oil/McClure’s

      • Workers went on strike

      • Ludlow massacre

    • “Poison Ivy” Lee was hired to “repair” Rockefeller’s image

    • Ivy Lee discovered he could shape facts to tell whatever he wanted to say, and people would believe him.

    • Facts are malleable and can be interpreted


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“Ivy Lee would have probably shared the mantle of ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

--John Stauber


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Early Development in PR ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Modern PR Agents

    • Edward Bernays

      • Freud’s nephew

      • “Father of public relations”


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Early Development in PR ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Bernays

    • Worked for Government

    • CBS (Option time)

    • American tobacco industry

      • “Torches of freedom”


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  • Lucky Strikes ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

    • Organized “Green Ball”

    • Luncheon for fashion editors

      • “new green fashions for fall”

    • Convinced historians &

      psychologists to talk about green

    • Organized “Color Fashion Bureau”

    • Wrote to interior decorators, department stores, art industry group about “new trend” (on green paper)

    • Got dept. stores to display green dresses in windows

    • Got an established gallery to feature a “Green” painting exhibition.


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Green became the color ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

of the 1934 season

  • Ivory Soap: soap carving contest

  • United Fruit Company


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  • United Fruit=“banana republic” ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Paid off governments/brutally exploited Guatemalans

  • When reformist Gov. attempted to reign in United Fruit’s power, called in Bernays

    • Bernays created a successful PR campaign that led to the CIA’s overthrow of a democratically elected government


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  • Pseudo-events -- the manufacturing of news ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”


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The Practice of PR ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • In 1988, the PRSA defined PR: “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.”


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  • PRSA Ethics Code (in textbook) ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”


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Survey in 2000 by PR Week ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Surveyed 1,705 PR professionals:

  • 25% admit to lying on the job

  • 39% say they had exaggerated the truth

  • 44% are uncertain of the ethics of a task they are required to perform

  • 60% say their work has been compromised by being told to lie.


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The Practice of PR ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Major PR Agencies

    • Weber Shandwick Worldwide (Interpublic)

    • Fleishman-Hillard (Omnicom)

    • Hill and Knowlton (WPP Group)

    • Burson-Marsteller (WPP Group)

    • Incepta (Incepta Group)

    • Edelman PR Worldwide (Independent)

    • Porter Novelli (Omnicom)

    • Ketchum (Omnicom)

    • GCI Group/APCO Worldwide (WPP Group)

    • Ogilvy PR Worldwide (WPP Group)

  • In-house Services


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  • Ex. Ketchum ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • According to the U.S. House Committee on Government Reform Minority Office, Ketchum received the following amounts per year, for federal PR contracts:

    • * $1,692,000 in 1999

    • * $2,552,000 in 2000

    • * $3,657,000 in 2001

    • * $2,563,000 in 2002

    • * $31,163,457 in 2003

    • * $58,895,846 in 2004


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

    • press releases

    • VNRs

    • PSAs

    • Internet materials

    • brochures, etc.


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  • Ketchum scandal on No Child Left Behind ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

    • $700,000

       Did a “rankings analysis” to see which reporters covered the story (pos. or neg.)

       Produced a VNR supporting the law

      • featured Education Secretary Rod Paige

      • paid journalist/conservative columnist Armstrong Williams $241,000

      • Narrated by fake reporter Karen Ryan (a PR pro)


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

  • Media Relations

    • promote a client or organization by securing favorable news media coverage

      • e.g. Heisman trophy


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

  • Media Relations

  • Special Events

    • pseudo-event refers to any circumstance created to obtain coverage in the media (publicity stunt)


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

  • Media Relations

  • Special Events

  • Research

    • Research the way the company is perceived by the public

    • Focus groups


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

  • Media Relations

  • Special Events

  • Research

  • Community and consumer relations

    • Create positive image for company

    • Rockefeller and dimes

    • e.g., American Express, Applebees


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  • American Express ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

    • Statue of Liberty Renovation

      • Raised $1.7 million

      • Spent $6 million promoting it

    • Save Our Strength hunger campaign

  • Applebees

    • The “Neighborhood Wall”


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Doing Public Relations ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

Six main functions

  • Writing and editing

  • Media Relations

  • Special Events

  • Research

  • Community and consumer relations

  • Government relations and lobbying


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  • Organizations lobby against industry regulation ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

    EX:

  • NAB: National Association of Broadcasters

  • NRA

  • Fast Food

  • Automobile Industry

  • Meatpacking industry


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  • “Astroturf Lobbying” ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”


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  • Lobbying for entire governments ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • e.g.:

    • Qorvis: Saudi Arabia

    • Burston Marsteller: Indonesia, El Salvador, Nigeria

    • Hill and Knowlton: Kuwait


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  • 1990:Iraq invaded Kuwait ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Drum up American support

  • “congressional human right caucus”

    • girl testified about the horrors of Iraqi invasion…babies on bayonets

    • She was the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador (and lived in the U.S.)


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Tensions between PR and the Press ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Pay issues

  • Undermining facts and blocking access (“flack”)

  • Promoting publicity and business as news


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Social Responsibility ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Case of The Gap -- proactive transparency. May 2004, releases first-ever corporate report on social responsibility.


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Cause-Related Marketing ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Case of Timberland

  • Also American Express, Ford, Nike, Procter & Gamble, Starbucks, and Target


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Crisis Management ‘Father of Public Relations’ with Edward Bernays if he hadn’t made the fatal career mistake of going to work with the Nazis, and then dying before he could clean up his own image.”

  • Bridgestone/Firestone and Ford, 2001

  • Odwalla Fruit Juices, 1996

  • Exxon 1989 Valdez oil spill

  • Johnson & Johnson, 1982 Tylenol poisoning