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Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development. Session 20 Techno-structural Interventions, III Work Design. Objectives. To overview trends in the field of work design To become familiar with the engineering approach To review principles of job rotation and job enlargement

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organizational design diagnosis and development

Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development

Session 20

Techno-structural Interventions, III

Work Design

objectives
Objectives
  • To overview trends in the field of workdesign
  • To become familiar with the engineering approach To review principles of job rotation and job enlargement
  • To review the application of Herzberg’s Two factor theory to job design
  • To review Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics theory
slide3

Historical Development of Task Design

Low

Job Enrich-

ment,

J.C.T, &

Socio-

technical

Systems

Specialized

Craft Jobs

Job

En-

large

ment

& ro-

tation

Degree of Job

Specialization &

Standardization

Scien-

tific

Man-

age

ment

High

Pre 1900s

1900-40

1940-60

1960 -

(from Griffin: Task Design: An Integrative Approach, 1982

slide4

Trends in Job Design

  • The era of craft workers
  • The impact of industrialization and mechanization
  • Engineering approach: Scientific Management and Taylorism
  • From fractionalization to enlargement
  • Contemporary perspectives
slide5

Jobs in the Craft Era

  • Craft jobs encompass a specialization but not fractionalization
  • Mechanization breaks jobs into tasks
    • Babbage (1832) argues specialization for decreasing learning time, waste and fewer tool changes. Also skill gets automated due to repetition
slide6

Taylor and Scientific Management

  • The use of work study/measurement to determine a fair quota was a step forward for both management and the workers.
  • Taylor puts a focus on systematically analyzing jobs and redesigning for effective use of personnel and technology
slide7

Some Major Principles of Scientific Management

  • Time studies
  • Functional or specialized supervision
  • Standardization of tools and implements
  • Standardization of work methods
  • Separate Planning function
slide8

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

  • The efficiency experts
  • Goal of saving wasted motion and thus fatigue
  • Applied cinematography to studies
  • Wanted “happy workers” at all levels
    • Naturally, the savings that accrue must benefit everyone, but saving lies at the root of fatigue elimination, and if every member of the organization, including the manager and the stockholders, is getting more "Happiness Minutes,” you are surely working along the right lines."
slide9

Job Rotation

  • Changing task assignments, not changing task itself. Move worker from one job to another to combat boredom
  • Used at Ford, Prudential, American Cyanamid
  • Consequences:
    • Positive: Increase worker flexibility
    • Negative: Motivation and productivity not enhanced
slide10

Job Enlargement

  • Job enlargement first used on 1940s. It involves horizontal expansion of tasks.
    • Lengthen cycle time
    • More task variety
    • Some responsibility
  • Programs at IBM, Social Security, Maytag
  • Consequences
    • Positive: some enhanced satisfaction & quality of production
    • Negative: No relationship to individual productivity, no real change in job, higher training costs
slide11

Two Factor Theory

  • Herzberg’s Theory developed from research into causes of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with engineers and accountants
  • Used critical incidents as the research method
  • Content analysis of the incidents yielded a set of satisfiers and dissatisfiers
herzberg s satisfiers
Herzberg’s Satisfiers
  • Motivators
    • personal growth
    • recognition
    • responsibility
    • promotion opportunities
    • achievement
slide13

Herzberg’s Dissatisfiers

  • Hygiene
    • supervision
    • pay
    • company policies
    • working conditions
    • co-workers
    • job security
slide14

Impact of Two Factor Theory on Job Design

  • Motivators influenced concepts of job enrichment
  • Hygiene factors influenced concepts of quality of work life
slide15

Job Characteristics Model

Core Dimensions

Psychological States

Outcomes

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Signif.

High intrinsic

motivation

High job per-

ormance

High job satis-

faction

Low absentee

ism & turnover

Meaningfulness

of Work

Responsibility

for outcomes

Autonomy

Knowledge of

Results

Feedback

slide16

Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics Model

  • Growth need strength
    • job is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of achievement, avenue for feeling success
  • Knowledge and skills
  • Satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work
slide17

Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics Model

  • Combine tasks: Effects skill variety, task identity, & task significance
  • Group tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identity
  • Give workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedback
  • Vertically load jobs: Effects autonomy
  • Open feedback channels: Effects feedback
  • Match personal growth needs to job
slide18

Criticisms of the Job Characteristics Model

  • Job characteristics are not distinct
  • Link to critical psychological states is not clear
  • Individual differences have an important effect
  • Job outcomes are not clearly linked to job characteristics
backwards forwards
Backwards & Forwards
  • Summing up: Today we covered centuries in job design from the craft era to modern times. Along the way we reviewed the era of scientific management, job rotation and enlargement and the Job Characteristics Theory
  • Looking Ahead: Next time we continue with job design and consider some contemporary approaches as well as the implications of modern manufacturing and information technologies on job design.