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GROUP GOALS. Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams. “ In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”. Group Goal-Setting.

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Group goals
GROUP GOALS

  • Larson & LaFasto (1989) examined government, business, & sports teams.

  • “In every case, without exception, when an effectively functioning team was identified, it was described by respondents as having a clear understanding of its objective”.


Group goal setting
Group Goal-Setting

  • Locke & Latham (1990) 93% positive or contingently positive

  • Meta-Analysis (O’Leary-Kelly, et al., 1994) 83% positive, 10% mixed, 7% negative; d = .92


Why do group goals affect performance
Why Do Group Goals Affect Performance?

  • Effort

  • Coordination

  • Planning & Strategy

  • Lack of Conflict


Zander 1995 group goals are more effective if they are
ZANDER(1995) Group goals are more effective if they are:

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Feedback

  • Accessible (identifiable paths to goal that are under the group’s control)

  • Moderately Difficult

  • Accepted



Issues
Issues

  • Individual or Group Goals?

  • Combining Individual & Group Goals?

  • Individual or Group Feedback?

  • Depends on Task Interdependence.


Pooled independent task savedra 1993
Pooled Independent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Pooled independent task
Pooled Independent Task

  • Matsui (1987)

  • Group + Individual Goals 9% Better Than Individual Goals.

  • Feedback led to improved performance for persons who were below either individual or group goals.


Interdependent task savedra 1993
Interdependent Task (Savedra, 1993)

Performance Appraisal Task


Interdependent task mitchell silver tower building
Interdependent Task (Mitchell & Silver, Tower Building)

Blocks


Egocentric vs groupcentric individual goal crown 1993
Egocentric vs Groupcentric Individual Goal (Crown 1993)

  • No Goal (do your best)

  • Egocentric Individual Goal (7 words)

  • Group Goal (5 sentences)

  • Egocentric Individual + Group Goal

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal (17 letters to group sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal + Group Goal


Group performance sentences
Group Performance (Sentences)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal & Group Goal (35% higher than No Goal)

  • Groupcentric Individual Goal

  • Group Goal

  • No Goal

  • Egocentric Individual & Group Goal

  • Egocentric Individual goal


Goals feedback should match task demands
Goals & Feedback Should Match Task Demands

  • Savedra (1993) performance appraisal task

  • Pooled (Independent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with an individual goal and individual feedback.

  • Team (Interdependent Work Flow) Highest quantity and quality of performance with a group goal and group feedback.