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ANDREW JACKSON. Key Concept:. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution. Sectionalism.

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Presentation Transcript
Key Concept:

The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.

  • After the War of 1812 there was a heightened sense of nationalism bringing the country together.
  • At the same time sectionalism was driving the country apart.

Sectionalism: loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country.

The North was loyal to the ideas of the economy based on manufacturing and trade.

The West was mostly interested in transportation of goods and statehood issues.

  • The South was loyal to their reliance on the cotton industry and the use of slave labor.
missouri applies for statehood
Missouri Applies for Statehood
  • Sectionalism becomes a major issue when Missouri applies for statehood.
  • The people of Missouri wanted to be a slave state.
  • When Missouri applied their were 11 free states and 11 slave states.
tallmadge amendment
Tallmadge Amendment
  • For months the states argued over admitting Missouri.
  • James Tallmadge of New York proposed in Congress that slavery be banned in Missouri.
  • Angered Southerners argued that the Constitution did not give Congress the right to ban slavery.
missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise
  • Both sides feared the other side would gain the majority in Congress.
  • The Compromise:
  • Henry Clay who was Speaker of the House suggested that Maine and Missouri be entered into the Union together.
  • This compromise maintained the balance of power in Congress.
  • Slavery will not be permitted North of the Southern border of Missouri.
  • The Missouri Compromise is a temporary fix.
the election of 1824
The Election of 1824
  • In 1824 the peaceful time of politics from the “Era of Good Feelings” had come to an end.
  • Five candidates from the Democratic-Republican Party ran for office.
  • John Quincy Adams was nominated because he was the vice president under Monroe.
Andrew Jackson, John Q. Adams, William Crawford, Henry Clay, and at one point John C. Calhoun who later withdrew.
The Election
  • Jackson won 41% of the popular vote and 99 electoral votes.
  • John Quincy Adams won 30% of the popular vote and 84 electoral votes.
  • Nobody had a electoral majority. The decision had to be left up to Congress by order of the Constitution. 131 electoral votes were needed to win.
  • Henry Clay who had no chance of winning persuaded his supporters to support Adams.
Jacksonian Democracy

Jackson felt that the election of 1824 had been stolen from him, that the will of the people had been ignored.

For four years the split between the supporters of Jackson and the supporters of Adams grew.

Democrats: supporters of Jackson

Republicans: supporters of Adams

john quincy adams
John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams was the first president to be photographed in 1843. The photograph was taken after his presidency.

Election of 1828
  • In 1828, Jackson’s Democrats will come out in full force to oppose special privilege that was personified by John Quincy Adams.
  • The campaign was bitter. Adam’s campaign portrayed Jackson as an illiterate, back woodsman, murderer, and adulterer.
Jackson Wins!

Jackson 278 electoral votes

Adams 83 electoral votes

Rachel Jackson

The election took it’s toll on Rachel Jackson as she became the subject of the mudslinging by the Adam’s campaign.

Claims that she had committed adultery and polygamy were circulated throughout the country.

She died of a heart attack before Jackson was inaugurated.

“To the Victor Belong the Spoils.”

Spoils System: the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.

Jackson opponents charged that this practice was corrupt.

It typically would result in unqualified people holding government office.

A New Political Era

As president, Jackson will face three major issues:

The Status of Native Americans.

The Rights of States

The Role of the Bank of the United States.

Rising Sectionalism

When Jackson took office the country was being pulled apart by conflicts among its three main sections- The Northeast, the South, and the West.

Legislators were arguing over three economic issues:

The Sale of Public Lands

Internal Improvements


Sale of Public Lands

The federal government had acquired land through conquests, treaties, and purchases.

It raised money by selling land to the public. Northerners became concerned that land being sold at such a low rate would cause their workers to move west.

Factory owners could not afford to lose their workers. The government wanted low rates to encourage settlement.

Internal Improvements

The issue of internal improvements also pulled the sections apart.

The Northeast and the West approved of government spending on roads and canals.

The South disapproved of spending on transportation because the projects were financed through tariffs.

The South did not want an increase of taxes on imported goods. They were opposed to rising tariffs because their economy relied on foreign trade.

Tariff of Abominations

In 1828, during the last months of Adams presidency, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs significantly.

Southerners were outraged. The had to sell their cotton at a very low rate just to be competitive. They hated the tariff and called it the “Tariff of Abominations”.

Abomination: a hateful thing

The crisis hit South Carolina especially hard because their economy was in a slump.

Crisis Over Nullification

The crisis was so serious that some states considered leaving the union.

John C. Calhoun was the Vice President. He understood the problems of the South and proposed a Doctrine of Nullification.

Doctrine of Nullification: each state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considered unconstitutional.

State’s Rights Debate

Calhoun’s idea of nullification was an extreme form of state’s rights.

One of the most famous debates in the history of the United States took place over the issue of state’s rights.

The Webster Hayne Debate took place in 1830

The Webster-Hayne Debate

Sen. Daniel Webster[MA]

Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]

  • Webster argued that it was the people and not the states that made the Union.
  • Hayne argued that the doctrine gave the states the right to defend its freedom by not allowing laws that it thought was unconstitutional.
  • Jackson and Calhoun will become bitter enemies over the issue.
South Carolina Threatens to Secede

Jackson made it clear that he opposed the Doctrine of Nullification. He did not want to drive the South out of the Union so he asked Congress to reduce the tariff.

Southerners thought the reduced rates were still too high.

South Carolina nullified the tariff acts in 1828 and 1832 and then voted to build its own army.

They began to threaten secession, or withdrawal from the Union.

Jackson’s Reaction

Jackson was enraged and vowed to enforce federal laws in South Carolina. He stated:

“I’ll hang the first man of them I can get my hands on.”

Election of 1832

Jackson runs for re-election in 1832 without Calhoun.

After he won he made it clear that he would use force to ensure that federal laws were obeyed.

Henry Clay introduced a compromise tariff in 1833. Congress quickly passed the bill and the crisis ended.

Jackson’s Native American Policy

Since the 1600’s, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more land.

Some whites hoped that Native Americans would adapt to the white people’s way of life. Others wanted them to keep moving west.

Many people believed that Native Americans were uncivilized and did not want to live near them.

By the 1820’s, only 100,000 Native Americans lived East of the Mississippi.

The Cherokee Nation

More than any other tribe, the Cherokee adopted many white customs, including their way of dressing.

Cherokee owned farms and cattle ranches, and some even owned slaves.

In 1827, the Cherokee drew up their own constitutions and founded the Cherokee Nation.

gold discovered
One year after the drafting of their constitution, gold was found in the Cherokee land in Georgia.

The discovery of gold increased the demand by whites to move the Cherokee.

The government proceeded with a plan to move all Native Americans from the Southeast.

Gold Discovered

rock a bye baby

Rock-A-Bye Baby

Although there is no evidence as to when the lyrics were written, it may date from the seventeenth century and have been written by an English immigrant who observed the way native-American women rocked their babies in birch-bark cradles, which were suspended from the branches of trees, allowing the wind to rock the baby to sleep.[

jackson s removal policy

Jackson’s Removal Policy

Andrew Jackson had long supported the policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi.

He first dealt with the Southern tribes during the war of 1812.

Jackson believed that the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans lived.

After the discovery of gold Georgia and other southern states passed laws that gave them the right to take over Native American lands.

Jackson supported the states.

indian removal act

Indian Removal Act

To solve the problem, Jackson had Congress pass a law that would require all Native Americans to move west or submit to state laws.

The law called for new treaties with Native Americans.

Jackson considered the law “just and liberal”.

new treaties
With whites invading their territory many Native Americans felt they had no choice but to sign treaties exchanging their land for land in the west.

Under the treaties the Native Americans would be moved to an area that is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.

New Treaties


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u s supreme court
U.S. Supreme Court

The Cherokee appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court to protect their land from being seized by Georgia.

The Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee were not subject to the laws of Georgia and did not have to follow them.

Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the Supreme Court ruling.

trail of tears

Trail of Tears

In 1838, federal troops rounded up about 16,000 Cherokees and forced them into camps. Soldiers took people from their homes with nothing but the clothes on their backs.

The Cherokee set out for the long journey in the cold, rain, and snow. Many became weak and ill along the way.

One fourth of the people died.

  • Political cartoons help make complex issues and personalities more accessible.
  • They often have a great impact on the attitudes about a chief executive.
  • In this cartoon, Jackson is portrayed as a strong president who used the office forcefully to pursue his agenda.
  • Many opponents who feared his use of power called him “King Andrew”.
The Second Bank


The United States

mr biddle s bank
Mr. Biddle’s Bank

The Second Bank of the United States was the most powerful bank in the country. It was set up by Alexander Hamilton during Washington’s administration.

The bank held government funds and issued money.

Nicholas Biddle was the president of the bank and controlled the money supply.

The bank made loans to Congress and Biddle would openly make comments about how he had influence in Congress. He helped make the rich richer and had too much control over Congress.

Jackson was weary of banks and felt the bank had too much power.

the bank charter
The Bank Charter

The bank had to have a Charter, or written grant from the Government, in order to operate. The bank was granted the charter without question year after year.

In 1832, when Congress voted to renew the charter, Jackson vetoed it. Jackson’s actions were supported by his Cabinet.

Jackson stated that the bank was a monopoly that favored the few at the expense of the many.

Jackson’s war on the bank will become the main issue of the Election of 1832.

the bank the election of 1832
The Bank & the Election of 1832


  • Jackson denounced the bank as unconstitutional and harmful to state’s rights.
  • Jackson will present himself as the spokesperson of the ordinary man and enemy of special privilege.
  • Henry Clay was a candidate set to run against Jackson.
  • A strong national bank was a key element of Clay’s American System. Clay was backed by Nicholas Biddle who had several clashes with Jackson.
election results
Election Results
  • The Democrats successfully paint Clay as the defender of the Bank and of privilege.
  • Jackson acquires 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49.
  • Jackson will proclaim that the election gave him a popular mandate to act against the bank.
war on the bank
The current charter was not set to expire until 1836. Jackson removed all the federal money into state run banks.

The Cabinet and the Senate objected to Jackson’s move but there was nothing short of impeachment that they could do.

War on the Bank
biddle fights back
Biddle Fights Back
  • Biddle fought back by making it difficult to borrow money.
  • Biddle withheld money from the people and cut the money supply. Biddle’s actions caused the American people to side with Jackson.
  • Jackson won the war but the economy would suffer.
henry clay and the censure
Henry Clay and the Censure

Censure: severe reprimand by Congress on another person in the government.

*Henry Clay led a move to censure Jackson.

Many people prospered after the bank failed because it was easier to get money from the bank in loans.

The rise in the money supply caused the dollar to drop in value.

As a result of this the price of everything rose.

Inflation: the increase of prices and decrease of the value of money.

specie circular
Specie Circular

Results of the

Specie Circular

  • Jackson was alarmed at the widespread use of paper money which he blamed for causing inflation.
  • Proclamation by Andrew Jackson that stipulated that only gold or silver could be used to purchase public land.
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.
panic of 1837

Panic of 1837

A few months after Van Buren was elected a widespread fear about the nation’s economy spread throughout the country.

People took their paper money to the banks and demanded gold or silver in exchange.

Gold Standard: system in which all currency is backed by gold.

the depression

The Depression

The country suffered from a severe economic slump.

The depression caused hardship across the nation. People had very little money so manufacturers could not rely on customers to buy their goods.

90% of the factories in the East had to close.

People starved to death and froze to death outside in the winter on the streets.

Reaction from the Government

  • Van Buren disagreed and believed that the economy would improve on its own.
  • Many blamed Van Buren for the panic even though he was only in office for two weeks when it happened.
  • Senators Henry Clay and Daniel Webster argued that the government needed to help the economy.
  • The continued depression made it impossible for him to win the election in 1840.
the whig party

The Whig Party

Van Buren faced a new political party in the election that had formed when Jackson had declared war on the banks.

The Whig party was named after the British party who opposed royal power.

In 1840, the Whigs chose William Henry Harrison as their candidate.

william henry harrison
Harrison ran with the running mate John Tyler.

Harrison was nominated because of his military record and was known as “Old Tippecanoe”.

The campaign slogan was:

“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!”

William Henry Harrison