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Industrialization and Reform The Question- Is it the government’s job to regulate on business in the interest of the workers?. Responses: Capitalism- private ownership of business Laissez-faire- no government intervention in business, allowing industry and the market set working conditions

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Industrialization and ReformThe Question- Is it the government’s job to regulate on business in the interest of the workers?


  • Capitalism- private ownership of business
    • Laissez-faire- no government intervention in business, allowing industry and the market set working conditions
    • Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations- the defender of Laissez- faire in capitalism- believed that the invisible hand of self-interest and competition would regulate the economy.
  • Socialism- Government control, should actively plan the economy- industry is owned by the public and operate for the good of all. Different extremes
  • Communism/ Marxism- the poor working class, proletariat, will always be held down by the wealthy, the bourgeoisie. The poor will rise up and overthrow the wealthy, create a communist state. All private property is abolished, everything is owned by the state and distributed according to need.
    • The Communist Manifesto- written by Karl Marx in 1800’s
  • Utilitarianism- govt supports greatest good for greatest # of people
  • Cooperative communities- Utopian
other reforms
Other Reforms:

Unions- an organization that speaks for all the workers in a particular trade or company.

    • They gain power through the threat of strike (lose valuable workers)
    • Collective bargaining- they negotiate with the owners for things like higher pay, benefits and better working conditions.
    • Unions were outlawed in Britain until 1825 but not supported until 1875.

Laws in Britain-

1833 passed the Factory Act placing age and time limits on child labor.

1842 Mines Act- women and children not allowed to work in the mines

  • limited work hours for women and children
social issues
Social Issues
  • Abolishment of slavery- Some argued on moral basis others felt it had outlived its usefulness, was old fashioned
    • 1833- British abolish slavery in their empire
    • 1865- abolished in the U.S.
  • Women’s Rights- Fought for the abolition of slavery and their own rights, participated in unions. 1888 founded the International Council of Women. Fight for women’s suffrage
  • Public Education- Horace Mann fought for free education for all students, the public school was born.
  • Prison reform
  • Anti-Semitism grew throughout Europe, they were openly attacked in Eastern Europe and oppressed in many other parts, many fled to the U.S. Zionism began, the movement to bring Jews back to Palestine. (Dreyfus affair, France)
democracy and progress
Democracy and Progress


1800’s only about 6% of British people could vote for representatives in parliament.

1832 Passed a bill reduces property requirement to vote allowing many middle class business men the right to vote, redistributed voting districts to better represent big cities (chartist movement)

  • Most all male citizens have the right to vote

1800s women organize, protest, some militant, hunger strikes, imprisoned

1918 Women could not vote until after WWI

Victorian Era-1837- 1901 Queen Victoria reigns for 64 yrs

  • British are at the height of their wealth and power
  • Monarchs have little control of the government, now a ceremonial figure, government controlled by Parliament, Prime Minister, and Cabinet
Parliamentary system of govt-
  • The executive ( the head of the country) is chosen from the parliament.
  • He/ she is a first elected by the people to be part of the Parliament and then chosen to be the executive (often called the Prime minister) because he is the leader of the majority political party in Parliament.
  • If there is no majority party other parties must join together to form a coalition in order to elect someone. Because coalitions can easily fall apart they tend to change executives more often.


1870’s- 1914

- continued unstable government, fighting in the streets, bloodshed.

- 3rd republic was formed and lasted for 60 years. - Fierce competition between political parties, government control changed on average every 10 months.