1 / 23

# 三步搞定是非判断题 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about '三步搞定是非判断题' - germaine-puckett

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### 三步搞定是非判断题

• 解题步骤及方法
• 例题 （剑桥系列，8月机经）

"TRUE/YES" 题目叙述与文章完全一致

“FALSE/NO” 题目叙述与文章有冲突

”NOT GIVEN“ 题目所述完全没有出现在文章中

• 细节题
• 顺序

• 定位---分析---判断
• 定位：专有名词，时间，地点，人名；趋势变化，关系
• 分析：比较关系，因果关系，相反，扩大范围或缩小范围
• 判断：例题
True/Yes
• 同义转换
• 推断
Some pollution problems have been correctly linked toindustrialisation.
• And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been exaggerated, or are transient - associated with the early phases of industrialisation and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it.
There is a wider range of achievement amongst English pupils studying maths than amongst their Japanese counterparts.
• Large sample international comparison of pupils’ attainment since the 1960s have establish that not only did Japanese pupils at age 13 have better scores of average attainment, but there are also a larger portion of ‘low’ attainers in England, where, incidentally, the variation in attainment scores was much greater.
＊The title of the debate is not unbiased.
• As a title for a supposedly unprejudiced debate on scientific progress, “Panic attack: interrogating our obsession with risk” did not bode well. Held last week at the Royal Institution in London, the event brought together scientists from across the world to ask why society is so obsessed with risk and to call for a “more rational” approach. “We seem to be organising society around the grandmotherly maxim of ‘better safe than sorry’,” exclaimed Spiked, the online publication that organised the event. “What are the consequences of this overbearing concern with risks?”
＊It is worth taking the risks to invent antibiotics.
• Penicillin was turned into a practical drug during the Second World War, when the many pestilences that result from war threatened to kill more people than the bombs. Of course antibiotics were a priority. Of course the risks, such as they could be perceived, were worth taking.
All the other inventions on the list were also judged by the precautionary principle.
• And so with the other items on the scientists' list: electric light bulbs, blood transfusions, CAT scans, knives, the measles vaccine — the precautionary principle would have prevented all of them, they tell us. But this is just plain wrong. If the precautionary principle had been applied properly, all these creations would have passed muster, because all offered incomparable advantages compared to the risks perceived at the time.
False/No
• 1.与原文相违背
• 2.原文与题目在范围，频率，可能性不同
• 3.原文为理论或感觉，题目则为客观事实
• Johnson decided he did not need an academyto settle arguments about language
The ISTP study examined public and private systems in every city of the world.
• A new study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University's Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and private costs of building, maintaining and using a transport system.
Indigenous Tasmanians used only four terms to indicate numbers of objects.
• Evidence of early stages of arithmetic and numeration can be readily found. The indigenous peoples of Tasmania were only able to count one, two, many; those of South Africa counted one, two, two and one, two twos, two twos and one, and so on. But in real situations the number and words are often accompanied by gestures to help resolve any confusion. For example, when using the one, two, many type of system, the word many would mean, Look at my hands and see how many fingers I am showing you. This basic approach is limited in the range of numbers that it can express, but this range will generally suffice when dealing with the simpler aspects of human existence.
＊The message those scientists who conducted the survey were sending was people shouldn’t take risk.
• The debate was preceded by a survey of 40 scientists who were invited to describe how awful our lives would be if the “precautionary principle” had been allowed to prevail in the past. Their response was: no heart surgery or antibiotics, and hardly any drugs at all; no aeroplanes, bicycles or high-voltage power grids; no pasteurisation, pesticides or biotechnology; no quantum mechanics; no wheel; no “discovery” of America. In short, their message was: no risk, no gain.
Not Given
• 信息没有出现
• 多为增加细节
• Stanley Milgram of Yale University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for their willingness to obey instructions given by a ‘leader’ in a situation in which the subjects might feel a personal distasted for the actions they were called upon to perform.
Research into agent technology was more costly than research into neutral networks.
• By the late 1980s, the term AI was being avoided by many researchers, who opted instead to align themselves with specific sub-disciplines such as neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on.
＊All the scientists invited to the debate were from the field of medicine.
• The debate was preceded by a survey of 40 scientists who were invited to describe how awful our lives would be if the “precautionary principle” had been allowed to prevail in the past.
• ---no information
＊All the listed technologies are riskier than other technologies.
• Clearly, all the technologies listed by the 40 well-chosen savants were innately risky at their inception, as all technologies are.

• 有绝对性副词
• 有比较关系或因果关系
• 有金钱或数字