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EDUCATION FOR GROWTH: NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT?. KEN MAYHEW SKOPE. PRODUCTIVITY, GROWTH, EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

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productivity growth education and skills
PRODUCTIVITY, GROWTH, EDUCATION AND SKILLS
  • “Skills are the simplest, best, most direct way to boost productivity……Skills investment is the quickest way to maintain productivity. Skills investment is the only way to maintain productivity”.

Mark Fisher, chief executive of the Sector Skills Development Agency, 2006.

the macro evidence on education and growth
THE MACRO EVIDENCE ON EDUCATION AND GROWTH
  • Chevalier et al (2002):

Growth and the LEVEL of education and training

Growth and the RATE OF CHANGE of education and training

the example of higher education i
THE EXAMPLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION I
  • New Zealand and Egypt
  • Scotland and Switzerland
  • England
the example of higher education ii
THE EXAMPLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION II
  • Private rates of return
  • Social rates of return
  • Social externalities
  • Economic externalities (Krueger & Lindahl, 2001)
productivity
PRODUCTIVITY
  • Measurement
  • Resonance with private sector managers?
  • Long term versus short term: Buchanan for Australia; Lloyd for the UK
  • Productivity and competitiveness
if productivity why skills i
IF, PRODUCTIVITY WHY SKILLS? I
  • Leitch Review
  • O’Mahoney and de Boer:

Germany and the UK – one fifth of the gap

France and the UK – one eighth

USA and the UK – almost none

if productivity why skills ii
IF, PRODUCTIVITY WHY SKILLS? II
  • UK Productivity and Competitiveness Indicators
  • The Five Drivers:

Skills

Investment

Enterprise

Competition

Innovation

  • What is missing?
the utilisation of skills
THE UTILISATION OF SKILLS
  • Work organisation
  • Management of the employment relationship

“To move forward, the Government will have to

lose its current fixation with boosting the supply

of skills and integrate the promotion of productive

people management within all public bodies

offering organisations advice and support on

learning and skills and business development,

including management skills training with a major

people management component.

(CIPD, 2006: 29).

skills as scapegoat
SKILLS AS SCAPEGOAT
  • The old scapegoats; the new scapegoats
  • Massive increase in the supply of skills
  • Why so little pay off in terms of productivity?
  • If current supply of skill is in balance with demand, what contribution to productivity can further increases in the supply of skill make?
two propositions
TWO PROPOSITIONS
  • Attempts to boost skills have to be accompanied by other policy measures
  • They have to be the right sort of skills
  • How does current policy connect with these two propositions?
if skills what skills
IF, SKILLS, WHAT SKILLS?
  • Impact of product market strategy
product specification
PRODUCT SPECIFICATION
  • The concept of product specification:

- the number of characteristics

- customisation

- frequent changes of characteristics

  • Associated production processes
what skills
WHAT SKILLS?
  • The futility of the stocktaking approach
  • Level
  • Quality
  • Breadth
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Competence and Competition, 1988
  • Leitch Review of Skills, 2006
  • Policy churning
how can policy be improved
HOW CAN POLICY BE IMPROVED?
  • A more subtle appreciation of product strategy, of employment relations and of linkages
  • Expertise of policy makers
  • Degree of centralisation and relationship with other actors