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Recent Trends in Global and European Fisheries. Bio-Resources from the Oceans Berlin, 28-29 Nov 2011 Rainer Froese, IFM-GEOMAR. Overview. Status and trends in global fish stocks Status and trends in European fish stocks Comments on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy Summary.

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Recent trends in global and european fisheries

Recent Trends in Globaland European Fisheries

Bio-Resources from the Oceans

Berlin, 28-29 Nov 2011

Rainer Froese, IFM-GEOMAR


Overview
Overview

  • Status and trends in global fish stocks

  • Status and trends in European fish stocks

  • Comments on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy

  • Summary


Status and trends in global fish stocks
Status and Trendsin Global Fish Stocks




Development

of the fishery

1376 First bottom trawls

1880 – Steam engine replaces sails

and men

Modern fishery: huge trawls can be operated anywhere


The Atlantic Dawn (now Annelies Ilena), built with European subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.


Destruction of the seafloor
Destruction of the Seafloor subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

before

after

Photos: Dr. K. Sainsbury, CSIRO


The trails of otter boards
The trails of otter boards subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

courtesy F. Grassle


Shrimp fishers off china
Shrimp Fishers off China subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

QuickBird satellite on 20 February 2003, off the coast of

Jiangsu province near the mouth of the Yangtze River


In the gulf of mexico
In the Gulf of Mexico subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Photo courtesy of Dr. Kyle van Houten (Duke University)


(t/km subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.2)

Biomass of commercial fish1900 Christensen et al. 2003


and in 2000…. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Christensen et al. 2003


Catch per 100 hooks 1952 1980
Catch per 100 Hooks subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.1952 - 1980

Blue Marlin

Swordfish

Bluefin Tuna

Mahi mahi


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Source: Myers and Worm 2003. subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Nature 423: 280-283


Trends in global fish stocks
Trends in Global Fish Stocks subsidies and operated from Ireland and the Netherlands, is the largest trawler of the World, with 144 m length, 14,000 HP, and 63 crew members, operating off West-Africa. She may catch during one trip as much as 7000 African fishers in one year.

Froese & Kesner-Reyes 2002, Worm et al. 2006, Froese et al. 2008, Froese et al. submitted



Status and trends in european fish stocks
Status and Trends fish oilin European Fish Stocks


Ray beverton and sidney holt 1957 founders of modern fisheries science
Ray fish oilBeverton and Sidney Holt 1957Founders of modern fisheries science


Three terms
Three Terms fish oil

  • Biomass (B) is the body weight of the fish in the water

  • MSY is the Maximum Sustainable Yield that can be taken from a population (=stock) of fish indefinitely

  • Bmsy is the biomass that a fish stock must have, so that it can deliver the maximum sustainable yield MSY


Legal background
Legal Background fish oil

  • The Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982), in force since 1994, requires countries to maintain stocks in their EEZ such that they can produce MSY

  • The precautionary principle is contained in the EU-Contract. It requires that in case of uncertainty, the less dangerous margin of error has to be used as target. This is explicitly applicable to the use of natural resources.

  • So far, UNCLOS has been implemented only by New Zealand, Australia and the USA.

  • And Europe?


How does european fisheries management work until 2009
How does European Fisheries Management work fish oil(until 2009)?

  • Scientists advise catch levels that just prevent the collapse of the stocks

  • The European Commission—after interventions of ‘stake holders’—proposes slightly higher catches

  • The 27 European Ministers of Agriculture decide catches that are on average 48% above the scientific advice

  • Fishers exceed the allowed catches by up to 40% (through discards)


Biomass Reference Points fish oil

Cod, Eastern Baltic

Froese & Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010


Biomass and Yield of fish oil

Eastern Baltic Cod

Froese & Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010


Status of european fish stocks
Status of European Fish Stocks fish oil

Landings from ICES 2010, MSY from Froese and Proelß 2010


Fishing mortality of european fish stocks
Fishing Mortality of European Fish Stocks fish oil

UNCLOS

CFP

FAO/UNFSA

JPOI

Damanaki

Average fishing pressure on European fish stocks. The lower arrow indicates the path if 75% of the stocks

were to be fished at the maximum sustainable rate in 2015. However, with the trend since 2000, that target

will be missed by more than 30 years.

Froese and Proelß Fish & Fisheries 2010


Why should europe care about global fisheries
Why Should Europe Care fish oilabout Global Fisheries?

  • 42% of the global trade in fish and fish products is imported by Europe

  • A CFP reform that correctly implements the Law of the Sea, such as done by USA, NZ and AUS, will force others to follow

  • A failed CFP reform will encourage continued overfishing, in Europe and globally

  • US$ 1.2 billion European fish exports into the USA will be endangered


Comments on the reform of the common fisheries policy
Comments on the Reform of fish oilthe Common Fisheries Policy

  • The Commission has published in 2009 a Green Book that correctly names most of the problems and issues to be dealt with

  • The Commission has published in 2011 a reform proposal that tackles many, but not all of the issues


Two make or break issues in the ec reform proposal
Two ‚Make-or-Break‘ Issues fish oilin the EC Reform Proposal

Positive: Stocks are to be maintained ABOVE levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield MSY


Status of european stocks
Status of European Stocks fish oil

Froese et al. 2010 Fish and Fisheries


Below fish oilMSY Level

Above MSY Level

Healthy ecosystems

Large fish

Large stock sizes

Low fluctuations

High, certain catch

Low effort /cost

High profit

Low impact possible

Subsidies not necessary

Social status high (custodians)

  • Stressed ecosystems

  • Small fish

  • Small stock size

  • High fluctuations

  • Low, uncertain catch

  • High effort /cost

  • Low / no profit

  • Low impact impossible

  • Subsidies necessary

  • Social status low (exploiters)


Two make or break issues in the ec reform proposal1
Two ‚Make-or-Break‘ Issues fish oilin the EC Reform Proposal

Positive: Stocks are to be maintained ABOVE levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield MSY.

Negative: The Council of Ministers continues to fix annual fishing opportunities.

Rather, the Councils should only fix long-term mangement plans.


Summary
Summary fish oil

  • Despite positive developments in NZ, Australia, USA, and some EU stocks, the number of collapsed stocks continues to rise globally

  • In Europe, overfishing continues in many stocks, even if these are outside of safe biological limits

  • The CFP reform proposal of the Commission is a major step in the right direction: its positive elements need to be defended, its major shortcoming (micro-management) needs to be fixed


Refs and acknowledgements
Refs and Acknowledgements fish oil

  • Froese, R., D. Zeller, K. Kleisner and D. Pauly. Submitted. What catch data can tell us about the status of global fisheries.

  • Pauly, D. and R. Froese. In press. Comments on FAO's State of Fisheries and Aquaculture, or 'SOFIA 2010'. Marine Policy.

  • Froese, R. and M. Quaas. 2011. Three options for rebuilding the cod stock in the eastern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434:197-2011.

  • Froese, R. 2011. Fishery reform slips through the net. Nature 475:7

  • Froese, R., T.A. Branch, A. Proelß, M. Quaas, K. Sainsbury and C. Zimmermann. 2011. Generic harvest control rules for European fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 12:340-351

  • Khalilian, S., R. Froese, A. Proelss, T. Requate. 2010. Designed for Failure: A Critique of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union. Marine Policy 34:1178-1182

  • Froese, R. and A. Proelß. 2010. Rebuilding fish stocks no later than 2015: will Europe meet the deadline? Fish and Fisheries 11:194-202

  • Froese, R., A. Stern-Pirlot and K. Kesner-Reyes. 2008. Out of new stocks in 2020: a comment on “Not all fisheries will be collapsed in 2048”. Marine Policy 33:180-181

  • Froese, R., A. Stern-Pirlot, H. Winker and D. Gascuel. 2008. Size Matters: How Single-Species Management Can Contribute To Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management. Fisheries Research 92:231-241

  • Froese, R. 2004. Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and Fisheries 5:86-91

  • Froese, R. and S. Luna. 2004. No Relationship between Fecundity and Annual Reproductive Rate in Bony Fish. ActaIchthyologica et Piscatoria 34(1):11-20

  • Froese, R. and K. Kesner-Reyes. 2002. Impact of fishing on the abundance of marine species. ICES CM 2002/L:12, 15 p.


Thank you
Thank You fish oil

Rainer Froese

[email protected]

www.fishbase.de/rfroese

IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel


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