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Bridge. A bridge is a structure that connects two roads across a waterway. Head losses occur while water passes through the bridge between its walls. Head losses should not exceed 10 cm. ≤ 10 cm. Water depth d. Longitudinal section in a bridge. B. 0.75 m. S. d. b.

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Presentation Transcript
bridge
Bridge
  • A bridge is a structure that connects two roads across a waterway.
  • Head losses occur while water passes through the bridge between its walls.
  • Head losses should not exceed 10 cm.
slide2

≤ 10 cm

Water depth d

Longitudinal section in a bridge.

hydraulic design
Hydraulic Design
  • Hydraulic design is conducted to obtain the number of vents (n) and the span of the vent (s)
  • The selection is made such that the head losses does not exceed 10 cm.
  • A simple design can be achieved following the next steps:
slide5
Assume n, then calculate S as follows:
  • Adjust S to a practical value (S ≤ 5.0 m)
  • Calculate the velocity through the bridge

Where Q is the discharge in m3/sec, V is the velocity in m/sec and Aw is the water area.

slide6
Aw = n . S . d

Where d is the water depth.

  • Head losses is calculated as follows

Where Hl is head loss (m), g is gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/sec2), C is a constant.

slide7
C = 0.72 for S ≤ 2.0 m
  • C = 0.82 for S ≤ 4.0 m
  • C = 0.92 for S > 4.0 m
slide8
Example:

Design a bridge across a waterway having a discharge of 18 m3/sec. The bottom width is 15 m and the top width is 21 m and the water depth is 3 m.

  • Sol.

Assume n = 5

S = (21-3)/5 = 3.6 m

Aw = (15+21)/2 * 3 = 54 m2

slide9
v = 18/54 = 0.33 m/sec

Av= 5 * 3.6 * 3 = 54 m2

Check of Heading Up

Since Aw = Av .. Hu = 0

Hu < 0.1 m … OK