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Introduction to the 39 articles. Part two: amendments and subscription to the Articles. Authority, doctrine, and canon law in the Medieval Roman church. Papal claims of supremacy over other bishops developed relatively late

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introduction to the 39 articles

Introduction to the 39 articles

Part two: amendments and subscription to the Articles

authority doctrine and canon law in the medieval roman church
Authority, doctrine, and canon law in the Medieval Roman church
  • Papal claims of supremacy over other bishops developed relatively late
  • Roman canon law & theology evolved continually through scholarship & debate

Disputation of the Doctors by DucciodiBuoninsegna, circa 1310

Pope Leo IX & Michael I of Constantinople

disputations and theses
Disputations and theses
  • Canon law was often altered through disputations over theses in universities
  • Luther’s famous ninety-five theses were intended in the spirit of this tradition

Martin Luther in Wittenberg, 1517

Luther at the Diet of Worms, 1521

the augsburg confession
The Augsburg Confession
  • HR Emperor Charles V called a Diet at Augsburg to establish doctrinal unity
  • Reformed churches across Europe adopted Melanchthon’s confession after 1530

Philip Melanchthon

Charles V and the Protestant Princes at Augsburg, 1530

the english reformation
The English Reformation
  • The Act of Supremacy [1534] formally divorced the C of E from Rome
  • Cranmer produced ‘the 10 articles’ in 1535 in consultation with Lutheran leaders
  • His Book of Homilies, English prayer book, and 39 articles followed soon after Henry's death

Thomas Cranmer

Henry VIII

the oxford martyrs 1555 56
The Oxford Martyrs, 1555-56
  • Mary I had Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and others and tried for heresy in Sept. 1555
  • Latimer & Ridley were burned in Oct. 1555, Cranmer in Mar. 1556 on the same spot

Mary Tudor

Thomas Cranmer

Hugh Latimer & Nicholas Ridley

restoration of the bcp and articles
Restoration of the BCP and Articles
  • Elizabeth Tudor restored the Prayer Book and Articles in 1563 permitting the last alteration to them in 1571 following her excommunication from the Roman Church
attempts to amend the articles
Attempts to amend the Articles
  • Various attempts were made between 1595 and 1784 to make the Articles either more or less explicitly Reformed and Protestant, none of which succeeded

Archbishop John Whitgift

Charles Stuart I

clerical subscription to the articles
Clerical subscription to the Articles
  • Opponents of the Articles in the Church of England have succeeded in watering down the terms of the clerical subscription oath

I do so affirm, and accordingly declare my belief in the faith which is revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds and to which the historic formularies of the Church of England bear witness; and in public prayer and administration of the sacraments, I will use only the forms of service which are authorized or allowed by Canon.

the articles and the protestant episcopal church usa
The Articles and the Protestant Episcopal Church, USA
  • PECUSA clergy were never required to explicitly subscribe to the Articles
  • However, article VIII of PECUSA’s canons require ordinands to swear that they “solemnly engage to conform to the Doctrine, Discipline, and Worship of the Episcopal Church”
  • PECUSA formally adopted the Articles of Religion in 1801 as the church’s confession, and they have never been replaced or altered

Trinity Church, Manhattan, c. 1790

the 39 articles of religion
The 39 Articles of Religion
  • Of Faith in the Holy Trinity.
  • Of the Word or Son of God, which was made very Man.

III. Of the going down of Christ into Hell.

IV. Of the Resurrection of Christ.

V. Of the Holy Ghost.

VII. Of the Old Testament.

VIII. Of the Creeds.

IX. Of Original or Birth-Sin

X. Of Free Will.

XI. Of the Justification of Man.

XII. Of Good Works.

XIII. Of Works before Justification.

XIV. Of Works of Supererogation.

XV. Of Christ alone without Sin.

XVI. Of Sin After Baptism.

XVII. Of Predestination and Election

XVIII. Of obtaining eternal Salvation only by the Name of Christ.

XIX. Of the Church.

XX. Of the Authority of the Church.

XXI. Of the Authority of General Councils.

XXII. Of Purgatory

XXIII. Of Ministering in the Congregation.

XXIV. Of Speaking in the Congregation in such a Tongue as the People Understand.

XXV. Of the Sacraments.

XXVI. Of the Unworthiness of the Ministers, which hinders not the effect of the Sacraments.

XXVII. Of Baptism.

XXVIII. Of the Lord’s Supper.

XXIX. Of the Wicked, which eat not the Body of Christ in the use of the Lord's Supper.

XXX. Of both Kinds.

XXXI. Of the one Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross.

XXXII. Of the Marriage of Priests.

XXXIII. Of excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided.

XXXIV. Of the Traditions of the Church.

XXXV. Of the Homilies.

XXXVI. Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers.

XXXVII. Of the Power of the Civil Magistrates.

XXXVIII. Of Christian Men’s Goods, which are not common.

XXXIX. Of a Christian Man’s Oath.