Chapter 9 Nation Building and Nationalism
Extending the Boundaries • John Quincy Adams, secy of state 1816-1824, deserves the most credit for expanding the nation’s boundaries • Negotiated two treaties • Adams-Onis Treaty • Transcontinental Treaty • U.S. secured all of Florida and reached as far west as the Pacific.
Settlement to the Mississippi • Policy: moving the Indians to the west side of the Mississippi. • Forcible removed • Their land: • Sold by the government to large land speculators, who in turn sold it to settlers • By 1840, more than 1/3rd of the nation’s population lived west of the Appalachians
The People and Culture of the Frontier • Settled by immigrants • Escaping: overpopulation, rising land prices, worn-out soil. • Farming a new frontier • Few tools, less available labor • Required a strong sense of community which became necessary for survival • Drifters: • Many saw his/her land shoot up in value in a few years. • They took that opportunity to sell out and move on, thus adding a touch of drifting to the frontier character
A Revolution in Transportation • National Road • From Cumberland, MD to Wheeling, VA. • A whole web of turnpikes came into existence • Did not return a profit but were beneficial to the public • Lost their attraction for investors Flatboats/Steamboats • US has a network of rivers that encouraged America’s economic development • Flatboats carried cargo from the upper Mississippi to New Orleans • Cotton planters built their wharfs. • After 1811, steamboats churned the waters-stirring a sense of romance
The Canal Boom • No road linked the East and West • New York, led by Gov. DeWitt Clinton, built the Erie Canal • Between Albany and Buffalo • Completed in 1825 • Enormous success • Paid less for goods as a result • New York grew rapidly as a commercial center