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Particle and Nuclear Physics Applied Systems. An Industry Perspective Dr. Edward Morton Technical Director, Rapiscan Systems. What is security?. The automatic and unobtrusive screening of goods in transit for the detection of illicit materials and illegal trade.

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particle and nuclear physics applied systems

Particle and Nuclear Physics Applied Systems

An Industry Perspective

Dr. Edward Morton

Technical Director, Rapiscan Systems

what is security
What is security?
  • The automatic and unobtrusive screening of goods in transit for the detection of illicit materials and illegal trade.
  • The automatic and unobtrusive screening of people in transit for the detection of illicit materials and weapons and for rapid confirmation of their identity
  • The automatic and unobtrusive screening of documents, both electronic and paper based, for authenticity and accuracy
sector drivers

Regulations

Costs

Technology

Performance

Regulations

Performance

Technology

Costs

Sector Drivers

EVENT

Either

Or

Time

Sector Implementation

technology drivers

Interfaces

  • Communications
  • Human
  • Sources
  • Electromagnetic
  • Particles
  • Mechanical
  • ?

System

  • Algorithms
  • Detection
  • Signal processing
  • Visualisation
  • ?
  • Sensors
  • Integrating
  • Spectroscopic
  • Temporal
  • ?

Systems

Of

Systems

Technology Drivers
sources in use today
Sources in use today
  • X-Ray tubes
    • Transmission X-Ray and CT (140 – 450kVp)
  • Accelerators
    • High energy X-ray (2 – 9MV) and neutron
  • Radioactive
    • Co-60, Cs-137, Cf-252, …
  • Non-Ionising
    • kHz to THz, passive and active
sensors in use today ionising radiation
Sensors in use today – Ionising Radiation
  • X-ray (Integrating)
    • Scintillator + PD (CsI, Gadox, CdWO4)
  • Gamma-ray (Spectroscopic & Integrating)
    • Scintillator + PMT (NaI)
  • Neutrons
    • Scintillator + PMT (Various options)
    • Gas detector (BF3, He3)
sensors in use today non ionising
Sensors in use today – Non-Ionising
  • RF
    • kHz (localised detection)
    • MHz (not much activity)
    • GHz (imaging)
    • THz (imaging)
  • Optical
    • IR (Thermal), Visible (CCTV), Raman, …
  • Mass Spectroscopy
    • Explosives/Narcotics detection
algorithms in use today
Algorithms in use today
  • X-ray image based
    • Materials discrimination (dual-energy)
    • Explosives detection (regulated)
  • Spectroscopic
    • Spatially resolved materials analysis (kHz to visible)
    • Sample based chemical analysis (Raman, Mass Spec)
  • Time of flight
    • Explosives detection (neutrons)
interfaces
Interfaces
  • Human interfaces
    • Graphical, item analysis
    • Graphical, system level
  • Machine interfaces
    • Databases (system and system of systems)
    • Intelligence (national, regional, global)
current challenges
Current challenges
  • Automation
    • Algorithms needed for high detection, low false alarm rate inspection with minimal human intervention
  • Standoff detection for people
    • Detection of suspects in crowded places such as transport interchanges and stadia at large distances (100m)
  • High throughput cargo screening
    • Driven by US requirement for 100% container screening
current challenges continued
Current challenges (continued)
  • Clutter
    • Complex images and scenes to analyse
    • Interference in spectroscopic systems
  • Environmental specifications
    • Ambient temperature ranges and ramp rates, ambient humidity, mechanical shock
what is an industry ready prototype
What is an industry ready prototype?
  • Source or Sensor that provides new or improved functionality, ruggedised to point of use outside laboratory
  • Algorithm with demonstration of required performance on real data
  • Interface that handles realistic data rates and data volumes
particle and nuclear physics applied systems14

Particle and Nuclear Physics Applied Systems

An Industry Perspective

Dr. Edward Morton

Technical Director, Rapiscan Systems