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Introduction to Soils. What is soil ?. A natural body of broken down and weathered mineral and organic matter capable of growing plants. Five factors of soil formation. Five factors of soil formation. Parent material – source of minerals. Five factors of soil formation.

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what is soil

What is soil?

A natural body of broken down and weathered mineral and organic matter capable of growing plants.

five factors of soil formation4
Five factors of soil formation.
  • Parent material – source of minerals.
five factors of soil formation5
Five factors of soil formation.
  • Parent material – source of minerals.
  • Topography – landscape position.
five factors of soil formation6
Five factors of soil formation.
  • Parent material – source of minerals.
  • Topography – landscape position.
  • Climate – mostly moisture, temperature.
five factors of soil formation7
Five factors of soil formation.
  • Parent material – source of minerals.
  • Topography – landscape position.
  • Climate – mostly moisture, temperature.
  • Organisms – mostly plants, type of plants.
five factors of soil formation8
Five factors of soil formation.
  • Parent material – source of minerals.
  • Topography – landscape position.
  • Climate – mostly moisture, temperature.
  • Organisms – mostly plants, type of plants.
  • Time!
slide10

Major soil horizons.

(Soils may or may not have all of these horizons!)

O – organic debris on surface.

A – the topsoil.

E – ‘eluviated’, leached/bleached.

B – weathered, structured subsoil.

C – unweathered, unstructured

subsoil.

R – bedrock.

slide11

Effect of natural vegetation on soil

development with time and the

horizons that develop.

slide15

Alluvium

Rich alluvial soil deposits.

slide16

Loess

Wind-blown, silt-sized deposits.

slide18

Residium

Weathered bedrock.

slide19

The study of soils can be fun and exciting!

Can’t you tell by these fine soil scientists in training?

slide20

FERTILIZER FACTS

AND FIGURES

slide21

13 – 13 - 13

% N

% P expressed as P2O5

% K expressed as K2O

How much is there? Multiply by %/100.

How much is needed? Divide by %/100.

slide22

Example

How much N, P and K are in a 50 lb bag of

10-20-20 fertilizer?

slide23

Example

How much N, P and K are in a 50 lb bag of

10-20-20 fertilizer?

N: 50 lbs X 0.10 = 5 lbs

slide24

Example

How much N, P and K are in a 50 lb bag of

10-20-20 fertilizer?

N: 50 lbs X 0.10 = 5 lbs

P: 50 lbs X 0.20 = 10 lbs

slide25

Example

How much N, P and K are in a 50 lb bag of

10-20-20 fertilizer?

N: 50 lbs X 0.10 = 5 lbs

P: 50 lbs X 0.20 = 10 lbs

K: 50 lbs X 0.20 = 10 lbs

slide26

Example 2

How many lbs of 34-0-0, 0-48-0 and

0-0-60 are needed to get 90-45-60

lbs/acre N-P-K?

slide27

Example 2

How many lbs of 34-0-0, 0-48-0 and

0-0-60 are needed to get 90-45-60

lbs/acre N-P-K?

N: 90 / 0.34 = 265 lbs / acre

slide28

Example 2

How many lbs of 34-0-0, 0-48-0 and

0-0-60 are needed to get 90-45-60

lbs/acre N-P-K?

N: 90 / 0.34 = 265 lbs / acre

P: 45 / 0.48 = 94 lbs / acre

slide29

Example 2

How many lbs of 34-0-0, 0-48-0 and

0-0-60 are needed to get 90-45-60

lbs/acre N-P-K?

N: 90 / 0.34 = 265 lbs / acre

P: 45 / 0.48 = 94 lbs / acre

K: 60 / 0.60 = 100 lbs / acre

slide30

The difference between fertilizer

grade and fertilizer ratio is:

EXAMPLE

GRADE: 6 – 12 - 24

RATIO: 1 – 2 - 4

slide32

soil tilth – relative term describing

the workability of the soil for

seedbed preparation.

slide33

General tillage systems:

  • Conventional – primary + secondary +

seedbed preparation.

2. Conservation tillage – leaves 30% surface

residue.

3. No-till – planting into stubble or residue.

slide34

CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE

PLOW

DISK

PLANT

PREP

slide38

Up and Down Hill Planting

(Notice the accelerated soil erosion!)

slide42

Fallow Farming

Used in semi-arid regions with unirrigated

crops to conserve moisture. Field is only

planted every other year to allow for soil

moisture storage.