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FACULDADE DE LETRAS - FALE. CEI - CURSO DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO EM INGLÊS - ENSINO. FIRST SEMESTER - 2010. WORKGROUP:. ALEXANDRE FORTES. ERICKA CAMILA. CAMILA LOBATO. CAMILA MAGALHÃES. PROFESSOR: DR. REINILDES DIAS. SUBJECT:. CALL. ONLINE COMMUNICATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING.

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slide1

FACULDADE DE LETRAS - FALE

CEI - CURSO DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO EM INGLÊS - ENSINO

FIRST SEMESTER - 2010

WORKGROUP:

ALEXANDRE FORTES

ERICKA CAMILA

CAMILA LOBATO

CAMILA MAGALHÃES

PROFESSOR: DR. REINILDES DIAS

SUBJECT:

CALL

slide2

ONLINE COMMUNICATION IN LANGUAGE

LEARNING AND TEACHING

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

slide3

1- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 1 the emergence of computer mediated communication for language learning and teaching
1.1 - THE EMERGENCE OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has long been of interest to teachers, learners and researches. Mason and Kaye discussed its role in different educational contexts in their classic book Mindweave. In it, they drew attention to the intermingling and cross-fertilization of ideas that CMC afforded.

To language professionals CMC could potentially answer two needs at once. It could be the means through which teaching occurred, and it could be the end of conversational classes. Instead of it, learners could engage with the communicative aspect of their study by exchanging language online.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

slide5

1.1 - THE EMERGENCE OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING

Various acronyms have been used to cover the process of learning and teaching languages through the mediation of computers.

Focus:

CALL - Computer-assisted Language Learning

CMC - Computer-mediated communication

CMCL - Computer-mediated communication in the context of language learning

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

slide6
CALL

“A form of computer-based learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualized learning. It is not a method. CALL materials are tools for learning. The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student-centered accelerated learning material, which promotes self-paced accelerated learning.”

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

cmc and cmcl
CMC and CMCL

“Defined as any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messages, e-mails, chat rooms), it has also been applied to other forms of text-based interaction such as text messaging. Research on CMC focuses largely on the social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies. Many recent studies involve Internet-based social networking supported by social software.”

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-mediated_communication

CMCL - aimed at giving focus to Language Learning.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

a view of the history of call
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF CALL

Behaviouristic CALL - The computer is a provider of drills to learners who

(usually) responds on an individual basis.

Targeted Skills: reading and writing

Communicative CALL - CALL is able to use the technology for more interactive

learning and greater student choice and control.

Targeted Skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening

Integrative CALL - CALL is able to take all the previous advantages aforementioned plus all the advance of multimedia products and the democratization of the Internet use with its complete variety of media.

Targeted Skills: several skills can be deployed at once

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 2 the road travelled a broad view
1.2 - THE ROAD TRAVELLED: A BROAD VIEW

Warschauer (1995) published the fist CMCL practitioner book. According to him, the hopes of early adopters of CMCL included giving learners the opportunity to:

  • Communicate with native speakers;
  • Communicate either one-to-one or, more innovatively, one-to
  • many and many-to-many;
  • Plan their communication;
  • Revisit their work, owing to the permanent traces made available to them through the technologies.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 3 what the meta literature reveals about practice and research
1.3 - WHAT THE META-LITERATURE REVEALS ABOUT PRACTICE AND RESEARCH

Table 1 - Meta-studies of CALL and CMCL since 1991

Each of the meta-studies in the table on the right provides a different angle on the CMCL landscape.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 4 practitioner studies as a reflection os practices of use
1.4 - PRACTITIONER STUDIES AS A REFLECTION OS PRACTICES OF USE

Table 2 - Practice: Liu et al.’s corpus

Liu et al.’s corpus to CMCL-specific material after been narrowed down was considered to have a overwhelmingly text-chat-based usage instead of a practiced-based nature as explicitly declared.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 4 practitioner studies as a reflection os practices of use12
1.4 - PRACTITIONER STUDIES AS A REFLECTION OS PRACTICES OF USE

Table 3 - Hassan et al.’s corpus

Hassan et al. collected a wider range of CMCL literature than was discussed in their final report.

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 5 a new content area emerges
1.5 - A NEW CONTENT AREA EMERGES

Kern (2006) - Interculturalism: the locus of intense theory-building activity fielding such hypotheses as:

connectivity does not necessarily promote intercultural communication (Belz 2002b);

there are cultural differences in the interaction styles of different students

cohort (Belz, 2003);

studies must look at the impact of cultural differences on teachers in

intercultural projects (Belz and Müller Hartmann, 2003);

researches should investigate communicative genre and address the need to

situate competence development in specific communication contexts

(Kramsch and Thorne, 2001; Hanna and de Nooy, 2003; Thorne, 2003);

success depends on interpersonal response (O’Dowd, 2003, 2006);

failure and avoidance of interaction may result when students are faced with

cultural misunderstandings from a pan-pal cohort (Ware, 2003)

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

slide14

1.6 - THE QUALITY OF CMCL RESEARCH

Hubbard - criticize researchers for reporting projects involving small numbers of untrained learners doing the task for the first time. He recommends, better control of variables in studies through better isolation of prior experience and finger-grained information on initial and exit proficiency. (2005: 360-2)

Hassan et al. - insists that studies must ‘test the effect of a language learning intervention against another intervention, or standard practice or no intervention.’(2005;20)

Liu et al. - concur, observing that in their corpus ‘the use of well-established measures with clear reliability and validity information was…minimal’ (2002:263)

Bax - ‘we need more careful qualitative – I would argue for ethnographic – analyses, in order to understand CALL better (2003: 2)

Levy - ‘Descriptive work is important in all CALL research, but especially for CMC-based work. Researchers need to be highly sensitive to the new phenomena that arise in mediated CALL learning environments’ (2000: 184)

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

1 7 summary
1.7 - SUMMARY

CMCL Research (since 1990)

“It has prioritised questions on conversation and discourse, learner

participation (and patterns of interaction) and collaboration (less from the

point of view of task design than of learner attitude, motivation and latterly,

intercultural learning opportunities).

The oral skill remains of interest, with older research looking for facilitation

of oral competence in chat settings, whilst newer research observes newer

speech in synchronous voice-over-Internet environments.

The major new content area is intercultural theory. Along with ‘assessment’,

‘teaching delivery’ continues to be under-represented.”

LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.