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Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease. Rheumatic Heart Disease Diagnosis and Management.
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Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease
This presentation is intended to support the Curriculum for training health workers and others involved in the diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. It has been made possible thanks to the support of the Vodafone Group Foundation and the International Solidarity, State of Geneva, and the ongoing support of Menzies School of Health Research, Caritas Australia, Fiji Water Foundation, Cure Kids and Accor Hospitality.
Rheumatic heart disease is the result of damage to the heart valves which occur after repeated episodes of ARF Early diagnosis and treatment of RHD are important to prevent progression of disease Signs and symptoms may not develop for many years The aim of RHD management is to prevent or delay heart valve surgery RHD can be prevented if ARF is diagnosed and managed early. 50% of people with RHD donot remember having ARF Introduction
Definitions Valve Regurgitationsuggests that heart valves • Are thickened and sticky against the walls of the heart • Do not meet in the middle • Leak (the blood flows backwards over the valve) Valve Stenosissuggests that heart valves • Become stuck to each other • Do not allow blood to flow through easily (restricted forward flow)
Signs and Symptoms of RHD Symptoms of RHD may not develop for many years • A murmur but no symptoms usually suggests mild-moderate disease • Symptoms usually suggest moderate-severe disease Symptoms depend upon the type and severity of disease, and may include • Breathlessness with exertion or when lying down flat • Waking at night feeling breathless • Feeling tired • General weakness • Peripheral oedema
Heart valve involvement Mitralvalve is affected in over 90% of cases of RHD • Mitral regurgitation most commonly found in children & adolescents • Mitral stenosis represents longer term chronic disease,commonly inadults • Most common complication of mitral stenosis is atrial fibrillation Aorticvalve next most commonly affected • Generally associated with disease of the mitral valve. • Tends to develop as a long term complication of aortic regurgitation Tricuspidand pulmonaryvalves are much less commonly affected • Usually affected in very severe RHD when all valves are affected
Clinical Examination Mitral regurgitation A pansystolic murmur heard loudest at the apex and radiating laterally to the axilla Mitral stenosis A low-pitched, diastolic rumble heard best at the apex with the bell of the stethoscope and with the person lying in the left lateral position. Aortic regurgitation A diastolic blowing decrescendo murmur best heard at the left sternal border with the person sitting up and leaning forward in full expiration. Aortic stenosis A loud, low pitched mid-systolic ejection murmur best heard in the aortic area, radiating to the neck.
Investigations Electrocardiogram (ECG) • To determine sinus rhythm Chest X-ray(CXR) • To determine size and placement of heart • To identify cardiac failure (pulmonary congestion) Echocardiography • To identify heart valve damage • To estimate severity of disease • Useful to compare results with future echocardiogram results
Key element in RHD Management Secondary prophylaxis Functions of secondary prophylaxis with established RHD • Prevent Group A Streptococcal infections • Prevent the repeated development of ARF • Prevent the development of RHD • Reduce the severity of RHD • Help reduce the risk of death from severe RHD.
Elements in RHD Management Effective baseline assessment, education and referral Initial management • heart failure (treatment with diuretics and ACEi) • atrial fibrillation (Digoxin and anti-coagulation) Routine review and structured care planning • Regular secondary prophylaxis • Regular clinical assessment and follow-up echocardiography (if available) • Dental care and Infective endocarditis prophylaxis plan • Family planning referral (for women) • Vaccination (if available) Appropriate surgical intervention Special consideration in particular circumstances(e.g. pregnancy)
RHD and Pregnancy The cardiovascular changes which occur during pregnancy may threaten the health of the woman and the foetus. Changes include • increased heart rate and blood volume • reduction in systemic and pulmonary resistance • increased cardiac output. RHD may be identified for the first time during pregnancy. Highest risk of complications immediately after delivery
Management of RHD in Pregnancy Management generally includes • restricting physical activity and salt intake • administering secondary prophylaxis (Benzathine penicillin can be continued during pregnancy) • avoiding community-acquired infectious diseases • education about monitoring own signs and symptoms and seeking care if shortness of breath • close monitoring of heart function (specifically in woman who have symptoms of RHD). Special attention should be given to women with high risk RHD including women with • mitral and/or aortic stenosis • atrial fibrillation • prosthetic heart valves • those receiving anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.
Infective Endocarditis Infective Endocarditis is a serious complication of RHD Endocarditis is caused by bacteria in the bloodstream. In RHD, endocarditis most commonly occurs in the mitral or aortic valves Uncommonly occurs during dental or surgical procedures but often the source of the infection is not clear May occur after heart valve surgery Antibiotics prior to dental and surgical procedures are given to help prevent endocarditis. All people with ARF and RHD should have regular dental care to prevent dental decay and the potential risk of endocarditis.
Surgery for RHD The need for surgery depends on • Severity of symptoms • Evidence that the heart valves are severely damaged • Left ventricular chamber size and function • Availability of long-term management after surgery (i.e. anticoagulation) Heart valves can be repaired or replaced Assessment before surgery includes • Echocardiogram to assess severity of heart valve damage • Complete dental assessment and treatment (if required) • Review and management of other health problems (e.g. kidney, vascular and chronic respiratory disease, cancers and obesity)
Surgery Outcomes Heart valve REPLACEMENT Heart valve REPAIR Anticoagulation required Longer time before re-operation NoAnticoagulation Shorter time before re-operation RHD
Guidelines for managing MildRHD Definition - RHD with any trivial to mild valve lesion.
Guidelines for managing Moderate RHD Definition - Any moderate valve lesion, no symptoms, and normal LV function with stable metallic prosthetic valves, or children (to 18 years old) with a history of chorea including those with no valve damage
Guidelines for managing Severe RHD Definition - Any moderate-severe valve lesion with shortness of breath, tiredness, oedema, angina or syncope and impaired or increased left ventricular function or a history of valve surgery including mitral valvotomy, any valve repair and bio-prosthetic valves (porcine and homograph)
Summary RHD presents as damage to the heart valves The mitral valve is most commonly affected, followed by Aortic, Pulmonary and Tricuspid RHD can be mild, moderate or severe RHD may be asymptomatic Management of RHD includes • Treatment of cardiac and other symptoms • Long-term secondary prophylaxis (to prevent recurrent ARF) • Regular medical and cardiology review • Management of existing pregnancy • Dental assessment, family planning referral