Romans. By Darcy Munro 4R. Who Where the Romans?. The Romans lived in Rome, a city in the centre of the country of Italy . What a Roman Army is made up of. The Roman army was made up of groups of soldiers called legions . The Roman army was divided into legions of about 5,000 men.
By Darcy Munro
The Romans lived in Rome, a city in the centre of the country of Italy .
The Roman army was made up of groups of soldiers called legions.
The Roman army was divided into legions of about 5,000 men.
First invasion - Caesar's first raid
In August 55 B.C. the Roman general, EmperorJulius Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two Roman legions. After winning several battles against the Celtic tribes in south-east England he returned to France
Second invasion - Caesar's second raid
The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came to Britain again landing at Walmer near Deal in Kent. This time he brought with him no fewer than five legions (30,000 foot soldiers) and 2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time the Romans crossed the River Thames. After more fighting, the British tribes promised to pay tribute to Rome and were then left in peace for nearly a century.
Third and final invasion
Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. (43 years after Jesus was born), Emperor Claudiusorganised the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain. General AulusPlautius led four legions with 25,000 men, plus an equal number of auxiliary soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and Lympne.
In barracks, these eight men shared two rooms. On a march they shared a leather tent and a mule to carry it.
Every town had its own bath complex (like a large swimming pool). There were 170 baths in Rome during the reign of Augustus and by 300 A.D that number had increased to over 900 baths.
People went to the public baths for entertainment, healing or just to get clean. Some people went to the public baths to meet friends and spend their spare time there. Large bath houses had restaurants games rooms snack bars and even libraries.
Forty years after the Emperor Claudius conquered southern Britain in 43 CE, the Roman governor, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, led a force of 20,000 troops northwards into the country known by the Romans as Caledonia (Scotland).
What clothes did women wear?
What clothes did men wear in Roman times?
Men wore a knee-length tunic (chilton), either sleeveless or short-sleeved. Roman men wore a cloak over their tunic, which was like a wide shawl that was draped over the shoulder and carefully wrapped around the body.
Women wore a longer tunic which was often ankle-length. Over this the women wore a stola which was a full length from neck to ankle, high- waisted and fastened at the shoulders with clasps.
Rich women wore long tunics made from expensive cotton or silk. They also wore lots of jewellery and make-up, strong scent and elaborate hairstyles. They had specially trained slaves to help them dress. arrange their hair and put make up on their faces.
Important Romans dressed in a long robe called a toga.
God of Love
King of the Gods.
God of War
God of the Sun
God of Time
God of the Death
Father of Saturn
God of the Sea and also earthquakes
God of doors
Messenger of the Gods
The blacksmith of the gods and a god of the underworld.
Goddess of the Moon and of hunting
Goddess of love and beauty
Goddess of the Earth
Goddess of Wisdom, intelligence and learning
Goddess of the hearth and home
This flexible armour was made up of metal strips held together with metal ties. They were so heavy that soldiers had to help each other to put them on.
The tunic was worn underneath the armour. This was made of rough wool and reached down to the middle of the thigh. It was not until later that short trousers were worn down below!
These sandals were designed to help the Romans march for long distances. They were strong, well ventilated and allowed the soldiers to march very quickly. The sandals often had metal studs at the bottom to make them last longer.
The decorated leather strips gave protection during a battle. These belts jangled as the army marched to scare the enemy. The most important soldiers wore the nicest, most expensive belts.
Centurions and other Officers wore crests on the top of their helmets so that the other men could follow them in battle. The helmets helped to protect the head, face and neck in a battle.
Each man had a heavy pack with a tool kit, a dish and a pan. The pack held personal items and 3 day's food rations. They may have also carried things like a cloak and a leather bottle for water or wine.
This short sword was also called a 'Gladius' and it was a terrible stabbing weapon. The soldiers could use them easily in the crush of a battle.
These had a sharp point to pierce shields and armour. Groups of soldiers would throw their javelins through the air at the same time in order to break the enemies charge.