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ENUM - The UK experience so far. Tony Holmes BT Chairman of UK ENUM Group. NICC Open Forum 2003. ENUM - the starting point. Problem Statement How do network elements (gateways, SIP servers etc) find services on the Internet if you only have a telephone (E.164) number?

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Enum the uk experience so far l.jpg

ENUM - The UK experience so far

Tony Holmes BT

Chairman of UK ENUM Group

NICC Open Forum 2003

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ENUM - the starting point

  • Problem Statement

  • How do network elements (gateways, SIP servers etc) find services on the Internet if you only have a telephone (E.164) number?

  • How can users define their preferences for incoming communications?

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Today we have too many addresses

Tel:+44 1732 475517

Sip:[email protected]

Fax: +44 1689 850104

+44 7710 005459

Smtp:[email protected]

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The ENUM concept

. Use telephone numbers as part of a domain name in the global domain name system (the DNS)

  • Take a phone number +44 1732 475517

  • Turn it into a domain name


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Service Address


Sip:[email protected]


Smtp:[email protected]


Tel:+1732 475517





ENUM Number Resolution


+44 1732 475517


ENUM converts the E.164 telephone number into a set of service addresses.

Facilitates order & preference

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Typical Applications

Typical Applications







Voice over IP









(Telephone) Numbers

IP Fax

Cct switched




Web Pages

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New business or old business in new packaging?

  • It enables the use of traditional telephone numbers in the context of different communications media, particularly those rising from the development of IP networks (e-mail, VoIP, etc)

  • ENUM will facilitate the penetration of new applications into the mass market

  • ENUM is about new service creation

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The UK ENUM Group

  • UK ENUM GROUP (UKEG) formed September 2001

  • - Tasked with the goal of identifying possible implementation options for the UK and recommending preferred infrastructure.

  • - Also to identify and resolve related issues

  • UKEG Preliminary Report - April 2002

  • http://www.dti.gov.uk/cii/regulatory/enum/egp_report.shtml

  • Recognised

  • - user ‘opt in’ approach as a critical requirement

  • - need for good authentication procedures

  • - major issues to be resolved on privacy

  • - need for compliance with EU/UK consumer protection & data privacy laws

  • Proposed:

  • - Single Tier 1 Registry for the UK (+44)

  • - competition at the Tier 2 level

  • - creation of new industry led ‘Policy Oversight Committee’

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Registrar C

Registrar B

Tier 2 ( Registrar A)

end user

The Model



Tier 1 Entity (T1E)


Single T1

Registry z

Registry y

Multiple T2 Registries Registrars

Registry x

Tier 2 Entity (T2E)


sip: eu @ foo.tld mailto: eu @ bar.tld

Assignment Entity (TSP/NRA/third party)

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ENUM Model for the UK

TIER 1 Registry

holds 4.4.e164.arpa



DNS Provider

holds NAPTR

DNS Provider

holds NAPTR









Possible groupings of players in ENUM into business entities

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The UK ENUM Trial

  • UKEG held Trial Seminar Sept 2002

  • - Trial pack issued setting out ‘roles’

  • - ‘Expressions of Interest’ requested

  • - Applicants requested to sign MoU setting out basic rules

  • 1st meeting of Trial Group (UKETG) held November 2002

  • - all ‘roles’ filled

  • - 3 applicants for Tier 1 role

  • decision taken to share T1 for the trial

  • Work began in earnest January 2003

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Objectives of UK ENUM Trial

  • Evaluate the pros and cons of implementing ENUM in the UK

  • Evaluate processes/interfaces/protocols for the interactions between the different parties

  • Determine technical and operational requirements for provisioning ENUM records

  • To assess DNS requirements/ implications in the provision of ENUM services

  • To determine security and verification requirements

  • To test from a technical and user perspective applications

  • To evaluate and refine the economic benefits and costs of supporting ENUM.

  • Results of the trial will be used by UKEG to determine the preferred implementation framework for provision of ENUM capabilities behind CC 44

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Progress to date

  • UK ENUM Trial Group formed as sub group of UKEG

  • Delegation of +44 made to UKEG for Trial with backing from DTI

  • All required roles filled for trial

  • 3 applications from trial participants for Tier 1 Role

  • - decision taken to share role for the trial

  • All required Infrastructure in place

  • Test calls made

  • Much focus on Authentication role

  • UKEG Trial Group currently producing report on progress and agreements made so far

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Some major issues……. and proposed solutions

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The process of Identification and validation

  • Authentication Requirements:

  • Trust

  • The registrant must;

  • - have the right to register the number

  • - be who they say they are

  • Only authorised numbers assignees subscribe to, change or cancel their ENUM registrations

  • Openness

  • No artificial barriers to registration (cost, timescales, restrictive practices etc)

  • Value

  • Cost must be set to a reasonable level

  • Liability

  • Registrant must inform Registrar of events that change the nature of the subscription e.g cease of number. porting

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  • Proposed approach

  • Authentication Agency (AA) may choose market in which they operate e.g. Only DQ numbers, certain TSP numbers

  • TSP (Telephone Service Provider) participation preferred

  • - enables maximum level of trust

  • - provides interface to all accredited AAs

  • - Number Portability process may offer a way forward

  • (initial discussions with NP Industry Group)

  • other options include Carrier Pre-selection Service

  • Other possible ‘Trusted’ solution

  • PIN mailed to registered address

  • ‘Basic’ Authentication as a fallback

  • Applicant produces supporting documentation e.g. bill, bank statement with passport, driving licence

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ENUM & the Internet naming environment

  • ENUM will use E164 numbers as part of a domain name

+44 1732 475517

  • How regulation impacts is dependent upon the Comm’s Bill

  • In the UK….numbers are regulated, domain names are not

  • This raises key issues for ENUM

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Control & Administration of Numbers and Names for ENUM

  • Numbers

  • ITU responsible for administration at the top level

  • e.g. assignment of E.164 Country Codes

  • National resources administered by NRAs (OFCOM)

  • For ENUM ITU procedures ensure no ENUM CC delegations without agreement of the Administration

  • Rules for insertion of numbers in ENUM is a national issue

  • ETSI have specified guidelines for European ENUM implementations (ETSI TS 102 051: "ENUM Administration in Europe”)

  • Domain Names

  • Control of domain names in ENUM is a national issue

  • Implementation requires the UK to develop ENUM policy

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ENUM Policy development in the UK

  • UKEG identified key requirements

  • ‘policy development has to be open, fair an transparent’

  • Who should develop policy and on what basis ?

  • DTI has stated ‘they will not assume this responsibility’

  • - who will make the rules?

  • - how will they be implemented?

  • - what powers will exist?

  • UKEG has considered the initial problems and identified a possible ways forward!

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Proposed make up of the Management Group and the Policy Advisory Committee


Representatives from Independent Organisations

DTI (Observers)


Tier 1 Registry

Authentication Agencies

Tier 2 DNS Providers

Application Providers

Tier 2 Registrars


DTI (Observers)


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Purpose of the Management Group Advisory Committee

  • Facilitate an open, competitive environmenture

  • Ensure the required degree of transparency

  • Safeguard the integrity and rights of users

  • To meet the needs of the ENUM Players

  • Underpin commercial requirements through through the use of effective contractual arrangements where deemed necessary

  • Oversee and ensure compliance with all EU and UK regulatory requirements which impact the ENUM environment

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UK ENUM Policy development Advisory Committee









Policy Development

Annual Public Forum

Input from other interested parties

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Additional work on UK ENUM Policy Advisory Committee

  • Further work required on:

    • - legal standing /recognition of policy body

    • - relationship with existing UK ENUM Group

    • - development of detailed by-laws

    • - disclosure obligations

    • - timeframes and impact on commercial launch

  • Gaining the required participation in

    • - Management Group

    • - Policy Advisory Group

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A single Tier 1 for the UK! Advisory Committee

  • Selection of a single Tier 1 Registry means

    • - somebody must assume overall responsibility

    • - somebody has to make the choice

DTI has stated ‘they will not assume this responsibility’

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A single Tier 1 for the UK Advisory Committee - the way forward

  • UKEG has:

  • recommended an ‘open competition for Tier 1 Registry’

  • developed basic principles for registry operations covering

    • - operational and technical requirements

    • - business, financial, legal and other requirements

  • developed a criteria assessment document


  • Invitation to tender

  • Independent evaluation of bids

  • Contractual arrangements between new ‘policy body’ and successful applicant

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The Way Forward Advisory Committee

  • Public consultation early 2004

  • UKEG trial continuing to provide additional experience and identify and resolve issues

  • UKEG to initiate discussions with industry/other interested parties on policy aspects

  • Actions required following Consultation exercise

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Thank You Advisory Committee

Tony Holmes

e-mail: [email protected]