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Space: From Foray to Habitation A Plan for the Human Habitation of the Solar System. Prof. David Hyland Mech Aero – 2014 Hilton Philadelphia Airport Hotel September 8 -10, 2014. The Question.
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Prof. David Hyland
Mech Aero – 2014
Hilton Philadelphia Airport Hotel
September 8 -10, 2014
Can humanity spread throughout the solar system beyond the Earth, using only technologies that already exist or are presently in an advanced stage of development?(No warp drives, matter transmit beams, dynamic Casimir thrusters or artificial gravity that does not use rotation, etc., etc.)
In situ energy extraction/power generation
Compact, high yield agriculture
Waste processing and recycling
There is no completely satisfactory approach to countering 0-g effects aside from sustained artificial gravity.
We do not know how much “g” is required to maintain human health indefinitely (besides zero g = bad, and one g = good)
We will not know the answer to this for a long time, since long term experiments are required.
Therefore, we require:
1 g artificial gravity.
Acceptable levels of Coriolis effects
Exposure to 1g almost all the time
Up to 3 yrs. Trip Time
12 Crew Members
Full complement of habitation technology
The Bola morphs into two segments of a torus
Essentially the smallest self- sustaining system that can support a dozen people
Can add hab modules and load-bearing cables to get a full torus (~150 people)
Start in 300 km circular orbit about Earth
Spiral out to a coasting trajectory to the E-M L1 “throat”.
Meld into the Lyapunov orbit of L1 Station and refuel
Propellant mass: 20 MT
Trip duration: 5.6 months
The L1/L2 region is the gateway to interplanetary space – where the spacecraft can “earn its keep”.
This is why low energy trajectories through the interior and exterior realms of the Sun-Earth system are of key importance
It has been estimated that the mineral wealth resident in the belt of asteroids between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter would be equivalent to about 100 billion dollars for every person on Earth today.
But we do not go to plunder the solar system of precious metals and deliver them to Earth, but to build new human communities in space.
Extractive economy? Development economy!NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS AS FUTURE RESOURCES
L1 Lyapunov Orbit
MoonFrom E-M L1 to S-E L2: Start of the First grand Tour (for mining)
E-L1 to S-L2: V=12m/s, 50 days
L2Asteroid Mining Tours: Exterior Realm
3.0 million km
3-2 resonanceThrough S-E L2 to the Grand Tour of the Exterior Realm
3. Follow the homoclinic, exterior domain orbit (green path issuing from L2 and going clockwise)
4. Mine Amors and Apollos on the way (3 years)
Then: see next slide
L2Heteroclinic Transfer Between Exterior and Interior Realms
3.0 million km
9. Follow the homoclinic, interior domain orbit (red path issuing from L1 and going counter clockwise)
10. Mine Atens and Apollos on the way (two years)
11. Then follow the stable manifold to L1 (blue line in previous slide, heading to the right).
12. Refuel and exchange crew at L1 station.
Go to step 1 and repeat.
Whereas asteroids are rich in the mineral raw materials required to build
structures in space, the comets are rich resources for the water and carbon-
based molecules necessary to sustain life.
In addition, an abundant supply of cometary water ice could provide large
quantities of liquid hydrogen and oxygen, the two primary ingredients in
As we begin to colonize the inner solar system, the metals and minerals found on asteroids will provide the raw materials for more infrastructure, space colonies, and space ships. Comets will become the watering holes and gas stations for the interplanetary spacecraft. Reference: Lewis, John S. Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets and Planets. Addison-Wesley, 1996.
“Mature” some spacecraft, growing them into complete tori and plant them as permanent stations (for resupply, repair and R&R) at Lagrange points or other orbital transfer points
Crew of 12
Colony of 150
For cargo or conventional vehicles, the interplanetary spacecraft can be complemented by the Rotovator
Between cargo launches, an on-board low thrust propulsion system performs orbit maintenance
Cargo is released at 2V0, placing it into a hyperbolic escape orbit
Surface of planet
Rotovators combine the efficiency of high Isp propulsion with the high thrust of chemical propulsion (but without chemical rocketry)
To design the rotovator, we need to find the variable cross section that will keep axial stresses below the ultimate yield stress of the material
A(s) = r2(s)
Volumetric mass density =
tenacious speed = (Tensile modulus/ density)1/2
The Rotovator (Rotor) as an Orbit Raising Device
Cargo in LEO
Rotovator in elliptical orbit
Homes for all Mankind
Rare minerals and metals
Advanced zero-g manufacturing
Protection of the Commons
Discovery and new knowledge
Invention and scientific advance
Outer Moon Colonies
Inner Planet Colonies