Unit 4: The Age of Imperialism (1890-1917) Imperialism in East Asia and Latin America
Bell Ringer - A New World Power • At the end of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. had accomplished its goal of becoming a world power, a role we still retain today. What problems have we faced as a nation historically because of the role we play in the rest of the world?
The Filipino Insurrection (1898 – 1902) • Emilio Aguinaldo launches guerilla war against U.S. • Very brutal conflict and U.S. used harsh tactics to put down rebellion • Aguinaldo captured in 1901 • 5,000 U.S. and 200,000 Filipinos died (most were civilians)
An “Open Door” to China • Many nations wanted “spheres of influence” in China for trade rights • 1899- Sec. State John Hay wrote “Open Door” notes to Europe’s leaders • Open Door Policy would ensure U.S. equal access to China’s markets • He was basically ignored.
The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 • In the spring, Chinese Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (the “Boxers”) rebelled against foreigners • 300 foreigners and Christian Chinese were massacred • US sent 2000 troops with 20,000 multi-national force to crush rebellion • Europe’s leaders agree to Open Door Policy
The Assassination of McKinley • McKinley was easily re-elected in 1900 with war hero Theodore Roosevelt as his Vice President • Sept. 6, 1901 anarchist Leon Czolgosz assassinates President McKinley • T.R. becomes President 8 days later • The “Modern Presidency” is born • T.R. was an Imperialist and wanted U.S. to continue to grow as world power
TR’s Resume • Harvard grad - 1880 • NY State Legislator – 3 terms • Rancher in Dakota Territory until 1886 • Civil Service Commission & Police Commissioner in NY • Asst. Sec. of Navy • War Hero • Governor of NY • Exiled to Vice Presidency • President 1901-1909 42 years & 11 months Youngest President Ever
Exit Slip – Imperialism Under President McKinley • T or F: More American soldiers died during the Filipino Insurrection than during the Spanish-American War. • T or F: During the late 1800s, the U.S. pursued an Open Door Policy with Russia. • T or F: The Boxers in China rebelled because of the Chinese government’s harsh treatment of Christian missionaries. • T or F: Theodore Roosevelt served as Governor of NY prior to becoming Vice President of the U.S. in 1900.
Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy • “Walk softly and carry a big stick” • U.S. had to accept challenge of empire and be an international leader • Social Darwinsim • Use military when diplomacy failed
U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico • Foraker Act (1900) – civil gov’t where U.S. President appointed a governor & part of leg. • Insular Cases – S.C. determined that P. Ricans didn’t have all rights of U.S. citizens • Jones-Shafroth Act (1917) – same rights as U.S. citizens • U.S. Protectorate today & Commonwealth (1952)
Cuba Becomes a U.S. Protectorate • Teller Amendment (1898) – No annex! • U.S. Army remained until 1902 • Platt Amendment (1903) – Cuba couldn’t sign treaties with other nations unless U.S. approved and leased us naval base at Guantanamo Bay so we could protect the canal zone!
The Panama Canal • 1902 – U.S. purchased French assets in Panama for $40 million via Spooner Act • US supported revolution in Panama to free it from Colombia in 1903 • 1904 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave US rights to 10 mile-wide, 46 mile-wide canal zone for $10 Million + $250,000 a year rent • T.R. boasted, “I took the canal zone…”
The Panama Canal Completed • Built from 1904-1914 • Dr. William Gorgas helped defeat malaria • 35,000 workers from 80 nations • 5,000 deaths • 8,000 miles saved from S.D., CA – N.Y.C. • 9 Hours to get through it! • 1979 ceded back to Panama Panama Canal Time Lapse
Exit Slip – The U.S. in Latin America • T or F – President Roosevelt’s foreign policy can be described as mild and ineffective. 2. T or F – Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens. • T or F – To build the Panama Canal, the U.S. helped Panama break free from Colombia. • T or F – One obstacle that had to be overcome in building the Panama Canal was disease.
Roosevelt Settles the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) • Japan & Russia go to war over influence in China • 1904 Japan humiliates Russian fleet at Port Arthur, China • 1905 TR wins Nobel Peace Prize for Treaty of Portsmouth, NH • Showed increased role of U.S. in world affairs
Roosevelt Updates the Monroe Doctrine • Monroe Doctrine (1823) – No new European colonies in W. Hemisphere • Roosevelt Corollary (1905) – U.S. is policeman of W. Hemisphere – this will keep Europe out
The “Gentlemen’s Agreement” • 1906 SF,CA banned Asian children from public schools • Japanese newspapers demanded action • 1907 -TR reached agreement to end segregation in S.F. while Japan would restrict emigration to the U.S.
T.R.’s “Great White Fleet” • 1907 – TR concerned about Japanese expansion in Asia at the expense of China, Russia, and Korea • He flexes U.S. muscle when he sends 16 new U.S. battleships around world on a “good will cruise” • 1908 – It makes a special stop in Japan
President Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • Taft was T.R.’s “handpicked” successor • Put down the “Big Stick” and substitute $$$ for bullets in Asia and Latin America • It encouraged American investment • U.S. had to use force at times and it really failed
President Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy • Wilson (D) – Anti-imperialist at heart • U.S. would never again seek “one square foot” of territory and we would promote “natural rights” and self-determination • Still we intervened in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico
Wilson sends U.S. troops to Mexico • Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz was friendly to U.S. businesses • 1911 F. Madero > V. Huerta, but Wilson wanted V. Carranza • 1914 Wilson sent U.S. Marines to Veracruz, Mexico and Huerta’s government collapsed
The Hunt for Pancho Villa • Revolutionary Pancho Villa, angry b/c Carranza was slow to bring about change, raided Columbus, N.M. in 1916 and killed 18 Americans • Wilson sent General John J. Pershing + 10,000 troops to find him • 11 month search, 400 miles into Mexico, called off in March 1917 as WW I raged in Europe • Villa was killed by unknown assassins in 1923
Exit Slip – U.S. Imperialism in Asia • The U.S. fought a costly war from 1899-1902 after winning it from Spain? a. Cuba b. China c. The Philippines d. Vietnam 2. The U.S. wanted an Open Door Policy in this nation? a. Japan b. China c. Vietnam d. Korea • President ______ won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905 for settling a conflict between Russia and Japan. a. Roosevelt b. Taft c. Wilson d. McKinley 4. A Gentlemen’s Agreement was reached between the U.S. and _______ to settle the issue of segregated schools in SF,CA. a. Cuba b. China c. Spain d. Japan