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Classical Greece and Rome. An Adventure of Epic Porportions. Greece. Greece is located on mountainous peninsulas in the Aegean Sea Farming was difficult, but pasture was plentiful, trade was key Through trade Greece adopted other civilizations achievements (Phoenicians Alphabet)

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Classical greece and rome

Classical Greece and Rome

An Adventure of Epic Porportions


Greece
Greece

  • Greece is located on mountainous peninsulas in the Aegean Sea

  • Farming was difficult, but pasture was plentiful, trade was key

  • Through trade Greece adopted other civilizations achievements (Phoenicians Alphabet)

  • Minoans flourished on Crete from 2000BC to 1400BC (mysteriously collapsed in 1400BC)


Greece ii
Greece II

  • Mountains and sea allowed each city to develop separately (city-states or polis)

  • All Greeks were tied together by their religion (Zeus, Athena, Apollo, etc.)

  • Olympics was every 4 years to honor the Gods on Mt. Olympus


Spartans
Spartans

  • Sparta was a city-state in southern Greece and by 725BC they conquered their neighbors (helots) and forced them to farm for them

  • They used force and military control to keep their society in order

  • Individualism was discouraged and obedience and self discipline valued


Democracy in athens
Democracy in Athens

  • Every citizen could vote on issues decided by the city state

  • Citizens Assembly was open to all citizens, but only could hold about 5,000

  • They met about 10 times a year, and those who sat on the committee were paid lost wages for their time allowing even the poor to participate


Greek culture
Greek culture

  • Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle taught by questioning and finding good answers ( What is goodness?)

  • Socrates had enemies and was put to death for corrupting the youth (399BC)

  • The Parthenon was the center piece on the Aropolis with a golden statue of Athena inside (30 ft. tall)

  • Eratosthenes showed the earth was round, and Archimedes was great mathematician and inventor using pulleys, measuring density, building catapults just to name a few.


Greek culture ii
Greek culture II

  • Choral music was common in Greece

  • Historians like Herodotus and Thucydides told stories of the past

  • Sophocles wrote plays, and completed the first known comedies and tradedies


Peloponnesian wars
Peloponnesian wars

  • (432BC-404BC) Between Athens and Sparta

  • Athens forced some city states to pay taxes to them and Sparta declared war on Athens

  • After 30 years of fighting Sparta won and Greece was filled with poverty and Athens was devastated

  • Women in Sparta had more status in Greece as they could own clothes and slaves, could not own land or enter into a contract


Alexander the great
Alexander the Great

  • 338BC the Macedonian King brought all the city states under his control and his son was Alexander taught by Aristotle

  • Alexander conquered most of the Mediterranean world, Egypt, and Persia

  • He died at age 33 and the empire quickly collapsed

  • Hellenistic Culture is a mixture of Greek , Middle Eastern,and Indian cultures (Sculpture had more common people and imperfections)

  • Alexander created a grand library in Alexandria and promoted education


Classical greece and rome
Rome

  • Located on fertile soil in central Italy, Rome was fairly isolated, and depended on trade

  • They believed in the same gods as the Greeks, but spoke Latin, studied science, math, art, history, and literature like Greece

  • The had 2 social classes patricians (wealthy landowners) and plebeians (farmers, craftsmen, merchants)

  • Rome was a republic with the Senate ran by elected officials called Consuls


Rome ii
Rome II

  • The Twelve Tables was the law of Rome (All equal under the law)

  • Contracts were also mastered by the Romans, and contracts were put to the legal test test in court if not fulfilled

  • Rome became an empire after defeating Carthage in Africa, and then conquering most of the Mediterranean (Julius Caesar completed this)

  • Julius made himself dictator and was assassinated on the Senate floor

  • Augustus Caesar revived “old” Rome and became emperor (godlike)


Rome iii
Rome III

  • PaxRomana (Roman Peace 27BC to 395AD) saw their culture flourish, and respected the cultures and ways of those they ruled over

  • They build 50,000 miles of roads, used concrete in construction, and created new city states loyal to Rome

  • The Gladiator games at the Colosseum were free to the public and kept the leaders in favor with the public

  • Women’s role was in the household, and her property was transferred to her husband


Christianity
Christianity

  • Jesus born in Bethlehem taught forgiveness, mercy, and sympathy

  • He was later crucified by the Romans for claiming to be the Messiah

  • After his death a band of Apostles believed Jesus rose from the dead, and help to preach Jesus’ message (Paul’s Journeys)

  • Christians were killed because they refused to worship the emperor

  • Emperor Constantine had a vision before a battle that convinced him to become Christian, which he later made Christianity the official Roman religion


Fall of rome
Fall of rome

  • Political weakness- Some Emperors were weak and corrupt

  • Economic Issues- High taxes, inflation, and unemployment

  • Military Decline- Paid soldiers from non Roman people were less loyal

  • Invasions- Barbarians from Northern Europe(Goths) and Huns were a threat

  • When Rome fell there was chaos and the Byzantine Empire survived in the east for another thousand years (476 AD last Roman emperor overthrown)