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Child Labour

Child Labour. Nikki Mabini Ashley Coffin Megan Eisenhauer Emma Oseko. Objectives. Define child labour and how it has evolved over the years. Analyze the supportive and opposing arguments to develop your own opinion on child labour.

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Child Labour

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  1. Child Labour Nikki Mabini Ashley Coffin Megan Eisenhauer Emma Oseko

  2. Objectives • Define child labour and how it has evolved over the years. • Analyze the supportive and opposing arguments to develop your own opinion on child labour. • Explain the health care provider’s role in terms of caring for children omitted to child labour.

  3. Only estimates exist, but at least 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 work for a living in developing countries, nearly half of them full time. (WHO 2010)

  4. Relevant Terms • Child labour- refers to children performing work that is exploitative or detrimental to their development (Conley 2000) • Child labourer - a child denied the liberating benefit of education, one whose health, growth and development are threatened, who risks losing the love, care and protection of family and who cannot enjoy the rest and play that are every child’s right. (WHO 2010)

  5. Terms cont’d • Child Protection Violation (UNICEF 2009) • International Labor Organization (ILO) • The ILO is the UN-specialized agency seeking the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. • Distinguishes between harmful and non-harmful work • Harmful work: work in the industrial sectors ; considered stressful and presenting high risks of exposure to radiation and hazardous chemical substances • Non- harmful work: work in the family unit (Bhukuth, 2008)

  6. History of Child Labour • In 18th century, child labor was accepted by many. • Throughout the 18th century misconceptions about children increased child labour • During the Victorian Era, increased in population in Great Britain worsen child labour. • The Industrial revolution in Canada also increased child labor practices. • In 1920, legislations were constructed to secure children rights and their education. (The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2010) (Galbi, 1994) (Daniels, 2003) (The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2010)

  7. The Evolution of international standards on child rights • 1924 - The League of Nations adopts the Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the Child. • 1948- The UN General Assembly passes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • 1959- The UN General Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of the Child (UNICEF, 2009)

  8. 1973 - The International Labour Organizations adopts Convention No. 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment • 1989 - The UN General Assembly unanimously approves the Convention on the Rights of the Child • 1999- The International Labour Organization adopts Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. • 2002- The UN General Assembly holds a Special Session on Children, meeting for the first time to specifically discuss children’s issues. (UNICEF, 2009)

  9. Current Influences

  10. Understanding why a family sends a child into child labour • Poverty • The underlying factor • Caused by economic, environmental, social, and physical factors • Child labour becomes a coping strategy in that negative shift of the family’s well-being; families survive thanks to the financial contribution made by children’s work (Bhukuth, 2008)

  11. Understanding cont’d • Assumed that families are not in the business of exploiting children; and that the work is judged not be hazardous to their physical, mental, or moral health • Important to note that exploitation cannot be ruled out (Bhukuth, 2008)

  12. Socio-economic reality • Different in developed and under-developed countries • Child labour : 1. Sustains standards of living in some households 2. Children are generally from most marginalized backgrounds; living in extreme poverty e.g. in the case of debt bondage (Bhukuth, 2008)

  13. Formal economy • Mainly private companies e.g. factory work, mining. • These employment markets exploit children in the form of wages • Children just seen as minors rather than workers whose rights have to be respected. (Bhukuth, 2008)

  14. Formal economy cont’d • Status as a minor: 1. leaves child worker open to any form of abuse 2. cannot claim own rights or better working conditions 3. not entitled to join any union where their voices will be heard • Result: many resolve to work in the informal economy (Bhukuth, 2008)

  15. Informal economy • Children work as helpers, apprentices or do casual labour in family businesses, artisan work or domestic chores. • Sector has own set of operating rules making it difficult to ensure application of labour legislations (Bhukuth, 2008)

  16. Childhood & work • Every society perceives children and work differently • This makes it difficult to harmonize and apply international laws in relation to child labour • Conventions on child labour leave a lot of room for maneuver; currently, there are attempts to establish universal standards. (Bhukuth, 2008)

  17. International conventions • Find it difficult to ban child labour because: 1. Are not in a position to support households involved in it 2. Banning children from working would mean taking responsibility for poor families who at present manage to survive without help (Bhukuth, 2008)

  18. (UNICEF, 2008)

  19. Supporting Child Labour • Provide family income • Family dynamic

  20. Exposure to Harms Education Health Opposing Child Labour

  21. Proposed actions • World bank stresses safety nets that would respond to this crisis (Kane, 2009) • Boosting small scale projects • School- based programs • Multi-level monitoring • Youth employment schemes (Kane, 2009)

  22. 1. Boosting small-scale projects • Increasing investments in small-scale projects will lighten work needed to generate adequate income for survival. • Will support and sustain small families (Kane, 2009)

  23. 2. School based programs • School feeding programs and take-home rations that not only safe guard a child’s nutrition, but also provide an incentive for the child to attend school • Prioritizing secondary grades for fee waivers, scholarships and grants for clothes, books and transport since children in this group are generally a higher cost for the family (Kane, 2009)

  24. 3. Multi-level monitoring • School based- • Protecting children who are already studying and working. • Teachers and other educational staff need to observe for signs of increased workload: fatigue, sudden absences, lack of concentration, physical injuries etc (Kane, 2009) )

  25. Monitoring cont’d (b) Labour monitoring: * Government, worker’s organizations and employment groups to identify children moving into child labour (c) Social monitoring: * social services in place to identify and protect children at risk (Kane, 2009)

  26. 4. Youth employment schemes • Getting young people of working age into decent work is an important step in reducing vulnerability of younger children to enter labour prematurely. • Include: apprenticeships, subsidies to employers, training young people to upgrade their skills (Kane, 2009)

  27. Prevention Strategies: “Prevention required the combination of education, outreach and enforcement. These activities require a mulfaceted approach aimded at employers, teens, parents, schools, and communities” (Miller, Handelman, & Lewis, 2007)

  28. What Nurses Can Do • Become aware of Child Labour and the determinants of health • Become Involved in Non Governmental Organizations • Become travel nurses • Nurses involvement in communities (Roggero, Mangiaterra, Bustreo, & Rosati, 2007) (Higgins, Tierney, Lins, & Hanrahan, 2004)

  29. Determinants of Health People’s lifestyles and the conditions in which they live and work strongly influence their health. (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2001)

  30. Questions???? • What does child labour mean to you? • How has your opinion changed after participating in this seminar? • How can nurses advocate for children’s rights?


  32. References • Bhukuth, A. (2008). Defining child labour: A controversial debate. Development in Practice, 18(3), 385-394. • Caglayan, C., Hamzaoglu, O., Yavuz, C. I., & Yüksel, S. (2010). Working conditions and health status of child workers: Cross-sectional study of the students at an apprenticeship school in Kocaeli. Pediatrics International, 5(1), 6-12. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from ProQuest Database. • Conley, J. (2000). Child labor-robbing children of their youth. Pediatric Nursing, 26(6), 637- 639. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from ProQuest Database. • Daniels, B. (2003). Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era. Retrieved March 14, 2010. • Galbi, D. A. (1994). Child Labor and the division of labor in the early English cotton mills. • Higgins, D., Tierney, J., Lins, M., & Hanrahan, L. (2004). School nurses: a resource for young worker safety. Journal of School Nursing (Allen Press Publishing Services Inc.), 20(6), 317-323. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from ProQuest Database. • Kane, J. (2009). What the economic crisis means for child labour. Global Social Policy, 9, 175-196.

  33. References Con’t • Miller, M., Handelman, E., & Lewis, C. (2007). Protecting Young Workers: Coordinated strategies help to raise safety awareness. Professional Safety,52(6), 38-45. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from ProQuest Database. • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2001). Determinants of Health. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php#determinants • Roggero, P., Mangiaterra, V., Bustreo, F., & Rosati, F. (2007). The health impact of child labor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data. American Journal of Public Health, 97(2), 271-275. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from ProQuest Database. • The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2010). Child Labor. Retrieved March 14, 2010. • United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) (2001). Beyond child labour, affirming rights. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/pub_beyond_en.pdf • UNICEF (2009). Celebrating 20 years of the convention on the rights of the child. The State of the Worlds Children/Special Edition. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-7XXSS7/$file/unicef_sowc_spec._ed._crc.pdf?openelement

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