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Object-oriented Testing

Object-oriented Testing. SIM3302. Objectives. To cover the strategies and tools associated with object oriented testing Analysis and Design Testing Class Tests Integration Tests Validation Tests System Tests. Object-oriented Testing. When should testing begin? Analysis and Design:

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Object-oriented Testing

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  1. Object-oriented Testing SIM3302

  2. Objectives • To cover the strategies and tools associated with object oriented testing • Analysis and Design Testing • Class Tests • Integration Tests • Validation Tests • System Tests

  3. Object-oriented Testing • When should testing begin? • Analysis and Design: • Testing begins by evaluating the OOA and OOD models • How do we test OOA models (requirements and use cases)? • How do we test OOD models (class and sequence diagrams)? • Structured walk-throughs, prototypes • Formal reviews of correctness, completeness and consistency • Programming: • How does OO make testing different from procedural programming? • Concept of a ‘unit’ broadens due to class encapsulation • Integration focuses on classes and their context of a use case scenarioor their execution across a thread • Validation may still use conventional black box methods

  4. Testing Analysisand Design • Syntactic correctness: • Are UML and ADT notation used correctly? • Semantic correctness: • Does the model reflect the real world problem? • Is UML used as intended by its designers? • Is the ADT design complete (capturing all the classes and operations in UML diagram) and understandable? • Testing for consistency: • An inconsistent model has representations in one part that are not reflected in other portions of the model

  5. Testing the Class Model • Revisit the Use Cases, CRC cards and UML class model. Check that all collaborations are properly represented. Inspect the description of each CRC index card to make sure a delegated responsibility is part of the collaborator’s definition. • Example: in a point of sale system. • A read credit card responsibility of a credit sale class is accomplished if satisfied by a credit card collaborator • Invert connections to ensure that each collaborator asked for a service is receiving requests from a reasonable source • Example: a credit card being asked for a purchase amount • Have you tested your analysis and design? • If not, who will do it?

  6. Testing OO Code Integration tests Class tests Validation tests System tests

  7. Object-oriented Testing Strategies(1) • Unit Testing • Smallest testable unit is the encapsulated class or object • Test each operation as part of a class hierarchy because its class hierarchy defines its context of use • Driven by class operations and state behavior, not algorithmic detail and data flow across module interface • Approach: • Test each method (and constructor) within a class • Test the state behavior (attributes) of the class between methods • Complete test coverage of a class involves • Testing all operations • Setting and interrogating all object attributes • Exercising the object in all possible state • Test sequences are designed to ensure that relevant operations are exercised • State of the class is examined to determine if errors exist

  8. Object-oriented Testing Strategies(2) • Unit Testing … • How is class testing different from conventional testing? • Conventional testing focuses on input-process-output, whereas class testing focuses on each method, then designing sequences of methods to exercise states of a class • But white-box testing can still be applied

  9. Object-oriented Testing Strategies(3) • Integration Testing • OO does not have a hierarchical control structure so conventional top-down and bottom-up integration tests have little meaning • Focuses on groups of classes that collaborate in some manner • Integration of operations one at a time into a class is often meaningless • Because of direct and indirect interaction of components • Thread-based testing • Testing/integrate the set of classes required to respond to one input or event • Use-based testing (integrates classes required by one use cas • Begins by testing independent classes that use very few of server classes • Next layer of classes (dependent classes) that use the independent classes are tested next • Cluster testing • Groups of collaborating classes are tested for interaction errors • Regression testing is important as each thread, cluster or subsystem is added to the system

  10. Object-oriented Testing Strategies(4) • Validation Testing • Are we building the right product? • Validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. • Focuses on visible user actions and user recognizable outputs • Validation tests are based on the use-case scenarios, the object behavior model, and the event flow diagram • Apply: • Use-case scenarios from the software requirements spec • Black-box testing to create a deficiency list • Acceptance tests through alpha (at developer’s site) and beta (at customer’s site) testing with actual customers

  11. Object-oriented Testing Strategies(5) • Software may be part of a larger system. This often leads to “finger pointing” by other system dev teams • Finger pointing defence: • Design error-handling paths that test external information • Conduct a series of tests that simulate bad data • Record the results of tests to use as evidence • Types of System Testing: • Recovery testing: how well and quickly does the system recover from faults • Security testing: verify that protection mechanisms built into the system will protect from unauthorized access (hackers, disgruntled employees, fraudsters) • Stress testing: place abnormal load on the system • Performance testing: investigate the run-time performance within the context of an integrated system

  12. Test Case Design(1) • Each test case should be uniquely identified and be explicitly associated with a class to be tested • the purpose of the test should be stated • A list of testing steps should be developed for each test and contains: • A list of specified states for the object that is to be tested • A list of messages and operations that will be exercised as a consequence of the test • A list of exceptions that may occur as the object is tested • A list of external conditions needed to be changed for the test • Supplementary information required to understand or implement the test • OO testing focuses on designing appropriate sequences of operations

  13. Testing Methods at the Class Level(1) • Random Testing : requires large number of data permutation and combination • Identify operations applicable to a class • Define constraints on their use– e.g. the class must always be initialized first • Identify a minimum test sequence – an operation sequence that defines the minimum life history of the class • Generate a variety of random test sequences– this exercises more complex class instance life histories

  14. Testing Methods at the Class Level(2) • Example of Random Testing 1) consider an account class that has the following operations: open, setup, deposit, withdrawal, balance, summarize, credit Limit, close 2)The account must be opened first and closed on completion

  15. Testing Methods at the Class Level(3) • Example of Random Testing 3) a variety of behaviors may occur: open•setup•deposit•[deposit | withdrawal | balance| summarize | creditlimit]n•withdrawal•close 4)different operation sequences can be generated randomly: test case #1: open•setup•deposit•deposit•balance•summarize• withdrawal•close test case #2: open•setup•deposit•withdrawal•deposit•balance• credit limit•withdrawal•close

  16. Testing Methods at the Class Level(4) • Partition Testing : reduces the number of test cases required to test a class (remember ECP) • Input and output are categorized • Deriving partitioning categories: • State-based partitioning • Categorizes class operations based on their ability to change the state of the class • Tests designed in way so that operations that cause state changes are tested separately from those that do not • Example: • Test case #sp1: open•setup•deposit•deposit•withdrawal•withdrawal•close • Test case #sp2: open•setup•deposit•summarize •credit limit• withdrawal•close

  17. Testing Methods at the Class Level(5) • Deriving partitioning categories: • Attribute-based partitioning • Categorizes class operations based on the attributes that they use and modify • Tests designed in way so that operations that use or modify attributes are tested separately from those that do not use or modify attributes • Example: for the account class, the attributes balance and credit limit can be used to define operations. Operations are divided into three partitions: 1) operations that usecredit limit 2)operations that modify credit limit 3)operations that do not use of modify credit limit

  18. Testing Methods at the Class Level(6) • Deriving partitioning categories: • Category-based partitioning • Categorizes class operations based on the generic function that each performs such as initialization, computation, query, termination • Example: operations in the account class can be categorized as: 1) initialization (open, setup) 2) computation (deposit, withdraw) 3)queries (balance, summarize, credit limit) 4)termination (close)

  19. Interclass Test Case Design(1) • Test case design becomes more complicated as integration of the OO system begins – testing of collaboration between classes • Refer to diagram

  20. Interclass Test Case Design(2) • Multiple class testing • For each client class, use the list of class operators to generate a series of random test sequences that send messages to other server classes • For each message generated, determine the collaborator class and the corresponding operator in the server object • For each operator in the server object (invoked by a client object message), determine the message that it transmits • For each of the message, determine the next level of operators that are invoked and incorporate these into the test sequence.

  21. Interclass Test Case Design(3) • Multiple class testing : example Consider a sequence of operations for the bank class relative to an ATM class: verifyAcct•verifyPin•[[verifyPolicy•withdrawReq] | depositReq | AcctInfoReq]n A random test case for the bank class might be Test case #r3: verifyAcct•verifyPin•depositReq The collaborators invoked for the above test case are ValidationInfo to execute verifyAcct and verifyPin. Collaborate with Account to execute depositReq Thus a new test case is Test case #r4 : verifyAcctBank[validAcctValidationInfo]•verifyPinBank•[ValidPinValidationInfo•depositReq•[depositAccount]

  22. Interclass Test Case Design(4) • Test derived from behavior models • Use the state transition diagram as a model • Test cases must cover all states • Breadth first traversal of the state model can be used (test one transition at a time and only make use of previously tested transitions when testing a new transition

  23. Testing MethodsApplicable at Interclass Level(1) • Cluster Testing • Concerned with integrating and testing clusters of cooperating objects • Identify clusters using knowledge of the operation of objects and the system features that are implemented by these clusters • Approaches to cluster testing • Use-case or scenario testing • Testing is based on a user interactions with the system • Has the advantage that it tests systems features as experienced by users • Thread testing – tests the systems response to events as processing threads through the system • Object interaction testing – test sequences of object interactions that stop when an object operation does not call on services from another object

  24. Testing MethodsApplicable at Interclass Level(2) • Use Case/Scenario-based Testing • Based on • Use cases • Corresponding sequence diagrams • Identify scenarios from use-case and supplement these with interaction diagrams that show the objects involved in the scenario • Concentrates on functional requirements • Every use case • Every fully expanded (<<extend>>) combination • Every fully expanded (<<uses>>) combination • Tests normal as well as exceptional behavior

  25. OO Test Design Issues • White-box testing methods can be applied to testing the code used to implement operations • Black-box testing methods are appropriate for testing OO systems • OO programming brings additional testing concerns • Classes may contain operations that are inherited from superclass • Subclasses may contain operations that were redefined rather than inherited • All classes derived from a previously tested base class need to be thoroughly tested.

  26. Summary • One strategy is a bottom-up approach – class, integration, validation and system level testing

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