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How do you make decisions about the world around you?. What is the information OUTSIDE your body called?. Stimuli. Stimuli include: light sound heat pressure chemical. What is it called when the stimuli are detected and transferred?. Sensation.

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Stimuli

What is the information OUTSIDE

your body called?

Stimuli

Stimuli include:

light

sound

heat

pressure

chemical


What is it called when the stimuli are detected and transferred?

Sensation

(A physical reaction within the body in response to an external stimuli)


Sensation + Past Experience = transferred?

Perception

(The organization of sensation into meaningful information)


Sensation is to perception as is to
Sensation is to perception as________ is to ___________ transferred?

A. Interpretation; organization

B. Transmission; interpretation

C. Integration; interpretation

D. Adaptation; interpretation


Sensation is to perception as is to1
Sensation is to perception as________ is to ___________ transferred?

A. Interpretation; organization

B. Transmission; interpretation

C. Integration; interpretation

D. Adaptation; interpretation


Do we detect every stimulus in our environment
Do we detect every stimulus in our environment? transferred?

No, it has to be strong enough for us to detect. We have a sensory threshold.

  • Two types of sensory thresholds.

    • - Absolute threshold

    • - Difference threshold


Absolute threshold
Absolute threshold transferred?

  • The smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time.


Difference threshold just noticeable difference
Difference Threshold transferred?(Just Noticeable Difference)

  • the smallest possible change in a stimulus that can be detected half the time.

    True OR false? ……. Our sensory experiences depend more on changes than the absolute size of the stimulus.


Difference threshold just noticeable difference1
Difference Threshold transferred?(Just Noticeable Difference)

True

Sensory experiences depend more on changes than the absolute size of the stimulus.


Difference Threshold transferred?(Just Noticeable Difference)

Example – What do you notice more?

3# brick into an empty backpack?

OR

3# brick into a 100# backpack ?


Web e r s law
Web transferred?er’s law

  • The larger or stronger a stimulus, the larger the amount of change required for an observer to notice a difference.

  • Doubling sweetness takes 3x the sugar

  • 2x the light < doubly bright


Sensory adaptation
Sensory Adaptation transferred?

-Our sensory receptor cells become less responsive to a constant stimulus.

-This allows us to quickly notice new or changing stimuli.


Sensory adaptation1
Sensory Adaptation transferred?

Give me an example:

Movie theater lighting

pressure of your clothes

hot / cold (esp. water)

Odors in a lab

Street noise (background)


Sensory Adaptation transferred? (p. 212)


Signal Detection Theory transferred?

  • Studies the relationship between:

  • Motivation, Sensitivity &, Decision Making

  • Different thresholds depending on the circumstances (importance of the detection matters)

  • Radar operator “looking” for a blip

  • Expecting to see someone at a party


The senses

Vision transferred?

Hearing

Smell

Taste

Touch

Vestibular

Kinesthetic

THE SENSES


Vision
VISION transferred?

  • Light waves….rods & cones in eyes

  • Controlled by Occipital lobe

  • Vision involves changing light energy into energy of the nervous system.


Rods and cones

RODS transferred?

Rods and Cones

Not sensitive to color.

  • Require little light to function……

  • useful in night vision.


Rods and cones1

C transferred?ONES

Rods and cones

Sensitive to color

  • Require more light than rods…… useful for daytime vision.

  • Study tip:

  • cones = color…..both start w/ c.


Binocular fusion - transferred?

The combining of the two images that the eyes receive.

Retinal disparity -

The difference between the two images on the retina.


Hearing
Hearing transferred?


Hearing1
Hearing transferred?

Sound waves move hairs in Ears

Controlled by: upper temporal area of cerebral cortex

Ear bones convert vibrations into signal


Taste
Taste transferred?

Soluble substances on taste buds of the Tongue

Controlled by: Cerebral cortex (temporal lobe)

What is the Stimulus?

Chemical molecules


Mr. Tongue transferred?


Smell
Smell transferred?

Volatile substances contact hair cells in nose

Controlled by: olfactory bulb (front temporal)

Olfactory nerve one of the longest in the body….1 synapse on the way to the brain!


Smell transferred?


Touch
Touch transferred?

Pressure, warmth, cold and pain receptors in the skin

Controlled by: parietal lobe “headband”

Sensitivity to pressure varies from place to place in the skin.

(Mr. Homunculus & p 235)


Vestibular
Vestibular transferred?

Mechanical / gravitational forces operate on inner ear

Controlled by: cerebellum & parietal lobe

Regulates the body’s sense of balance by sending messages from semicircular canal fluid to brain.


Kinesthetic
Kinesthetic transferred?

Body movements w/in muscles/joints/tendons

Controlled by: cerebellum & cerebral cortex (esp. parietal)

Senses movement and position of body parts


Kinesthetic how does it work
Kinesthetic: transferred?How does it work?

Sensory neurons located in the joints and muscles communicate information to the brain about changes in body position.

Maintain posture & balance


Gestalt
Gestalt transferred?

  • The perception of stimuli as “wholes”rather than bits and pieces.


x x transferred?

x

x

x oo

X

x

x

xx


x x transferred?

x

x

x oo

X

x

x

xx


Three gestalt principles
Three Gestalt principles transferred?

Closure

Proximity

Similarity


Closure
Closure transferred?

  • Tendency to group according to enclosed or completed figures rather than open or incomplete parts.


Closure1
Closure transferred?


Closure2
Closure transferred?


Proximity
Proximity transferred?

  • Tendency to group together objects that are close to each other.


Proximity1
Proximity transferred?

3 columns 3 Rows


Similarity
Similarity transferred?

  • Tendency to group elements together that are similar to one another.


Similarity1
Similarity transferred?

Columns Rows


Figure and ground
Figure and Ground transferred?

  • One form of perceptual organization in which we distinguish between an object and its background.


Figure and ground1
Figure and ground transferred?

Vase or face?



Perceptual inference
Perceptual inference transferred?

  • Perception based on sensory inputandpastexperience.

  • Mostly automatic & unconscious

  • Fill in the gaps of what you sense!


Perceptual inference1
Perceptual inference transferred?

  • Auditory –

    hear a bark & assume it’s your dog

  • Visual –

    driving over a hill, you ASSUME the road continues


We learn to perceive
We learn to perceive transferred?

Learned – babies learn to recognize faces

Interaction with our environment is necessary for the development of perception. (Kitten example)

Influenced by

-needs

-beliefs

-expectations

Can’t just RIDE in the car…….you must DRIVE!


We learn to perceive1
We learn to perceive transferred?

Perceptual Set-

You tend to believe/see what you expect

heuristics lead to

pre-judging (mis-judging)

racism


External mono cular cues
External transferred? (monocular) cues

Relative height

Interposition

Texture-density

Light & Shadow

Aerial & Atmosphere

Motion parallax

Linear

Relative Motion










Aerial & Atmospheric: Bluing-far looks blue transferred?

graying – pollution helps


Aerial & Atmospheric: Bluing-far looks blue transferred?

graying – pollution helps



Motion parallax transferred?

As you move, NEAR objects seem to move more than FAR objects

cars on a highway

objects in a straight line of sight



Linear Perspective transferred?


Accommodation
Accommodation transferred?

The thickening or thinning of the lens to focus on objects near or far.

  • Thickens for near objects.

Thins for distant objects.


Relative motion
Relative motion transferred?

  • If you look near, far things move with you.

  • If you look far, near things move in the opposite direction.

  • Look out your car window!


Relative motion1
Relative motion transferred?


Internal bi nocular cues
Internal / transferred?Binocular cues


Convergence
Convergence transferred?

Eyes turn inward to look at an object.

As the eyes turn inward, the muscles of the eyes send messages to the brain telling it the object is near.


Retinal disparity binocular fusion
Retinal Disparity / Binocular Fusion transferred?

The two eyes see different images, the brain recognizes this, and then calculates distance.

The two images are “fused” into one, creating one large, coherent image in your brain.


Constancy
Constancy transferred?

  • The tendency to perceive certain objects in the same even though light, angle, or distance may change.

3

Types

Size/distance

Shape/angle

Brightness/color


Size constancy all the same size but pilots know this better than you
Size constancy: all the same size transferred?but pilots know this better than you!


Shape constancy
Shape constancy transferred?

  • Perceive the shape of a known object as remaining unchanged although we may perceive it from different angles

    (different images cast on our retina)


Brightness constancy
Brightness constancy transferred?

  • Perceive the brightness of an object as stable or unchanging regardless of a change in lighting.

Objects in sunlight & shade


Illusions
Illusions transferred?

  • Illusions occur when we misperceive the true characteristics or properties of an object.


Illusions1
Illusions transferred?

  • Spatial summation – A collection of individuals = a different whole



Does our mind always accurately represent reality
Does our mind always accurately represent reality? Seurat (1884-1886)

-Ames room (p. 231)


Muller-Lyer Illusion Seurat (1884-1886)


S ubliminal p erception
S Seurat (1884-1886)ubliminalPerception

subliminal means literally “below the threshold.”

-1957 movie theater experiment

-subsequent experiments do NOT support this!

-There IS evidence that we can detect subliminal information

-Word Recognition experiment

-Explanation for déjà vu?


E xtra s ensory p erception
E Seurat (1884-1886)xtraSensoryPerception

Receiving info. From channels other than the “normal” senses

-Clairvoyance: perception w/o sensory input

-Telepathy: mind reading / thought transference

-Psychokinesis: moving objects w/mind

-Precognition: foretelling of events


E xtra s ensory p erception1
E Seurat (1884-1886)xtraSensoryPerception

- Ms. Cleo

- ”6th Sense”

- Yuri Geller - Spoon Bending

- John Edward

- ”The Amazing Randi” million $ challenge


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