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Monitoring the high energy transient sky with the 9-spacecraft interplanetary network. AGILE Fermi INTEGRAL RHESSI. MESSENGER Swift Suzaku Odyssey. Wind.

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slide1

Monitoring the high energy transient sky with the 9-spacecraft interplanetary network

AGILE Fermi INTEGRAL RHESSI

MESSENGER SwiftSuzakuOdyssey

Wind

S. Golenetskii, R. Aptekar, E. Mazets, V. Pal'shin, D. Frederiks (Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg, I. G. Mitrofanov, D. Golovin, M. L. Litvak, A. B. Sanin (Space Research Institute, Moscow), W. Boynton, C. Fellows, K. Harshman, R. Starr (University of Arizona), A. von Kienlin, A. Rau (MPE, Germany), K. Yamaoka (Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan), M. Ohno, T. Takahashi (ISAS/JAXA, Japan ), Y. Fukazawa (Hiroshima University, Japan), M., Tashiro, Y. Terada (Saitama University, Japan), T. Murakami (Kanazawa University, Japan), K. Makishima (RIKEN, Japan), S. Barthelmy, T. Cline, J. Cummings, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm (Goddard Space Flight Center), J. Goldsten (APL JHU), E. Del Monte, M. Feroci (IASF/INAF, Roma, Italy), M. Marisaldi (IASF/INAF, Bologna, Italy), M. Briggs, V. Connaughton (UAH), C. Meegan (USRA), D. M. Smith (U.C. Santa Cruz), C. Wigger, W. Hajdas (PSI, Switzerland)

Kevin Hurley

UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory

khurley@ssl.berkeley.edu

interplanetary networks have been around since the 70 s
Interplanetary Networks Have Been Around Since the 70’s
  • Initially, they were the only way to obtain precise positions for gamma-ray bursts
  • Today we have Swift, so the IPN serves other purposes, such as:
    • Searches for gravitational radiation associated with GRBs and SGRs*
    • Searches for ν emission in conjunction with bursts
    • Ground-based searches for VHE γ-ray emission
    • Investigating the GRB/Supernova connection*
    • Monitoring magnetar bursts
    • Refining Fermi*, AGILE, and occasionally Swift and INTEGRAL error boxes
    • Providing a searchable historical record
    • Etc.
  • The IPN detection rate is high (350/y), and the bursts detected tend to be the brighter and closer ones (z<4.5)
the missions and experiments comprising the ipn
The Missions and Experiments Comprising the IPN
  • AGILE (Super-AGILE, Mini-Calorimeter)
  • Fermi (Gamma Burst Monitor)
  • INTEGRAL (SPI Anticoincidence System)
  • RHESSI (Ge spectrometer array)
  • Mars Odyssey (High Energy Neutron Spectrometer)
  • MESSENGER (Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer)
  • Suzaku (Hard X-Ray Detector Wide Area Monitor)
  • Swift (Burst Alert Telescope)
  • Wind (Konus)
slide4

The current configuration of the network

Mars

(Odyssey)

1000 l-s

.

.

Mercury

(MESSENGER)

..

600 l-s

.

.

.

LEO Spacecraft

24 light-ms

RHESSI

AGILE

WIND

6 light-s

Swift

INTEGRAL

0.5 light-s

Suzaku

Fermi

search for previously unknown grb sne with e pian and a corsi
Search for Previously Unknown GRB/SNe(with E. Pian and A. Corsi)
  • We used the IPN data on 37 core-collapse SNe in 2005 to investigate as-yet undiscovered GRB/SNe associations
  • We selected the GRBs which occurred in a time window around the estimated explosion (~weeks) and looked for positional coincidences
  • 873 bursts occurred within the time windows
  • 90 had positions which were consistent with the positions of the SNe
  • 66 coincidences would be expected by chance
  • Interesting, but not statistically significant
refining fermi gbm localizations1
Refining Fermi GBM Localizations
  • Fermi GBM error box sizes are reduced by up to several orders of magnitude, and Fermi systematic uncertainties can be improved
  • Refined Fermi GBM/IPN localizations can be searched more efficiently
    • by the Fermi LAT team for evidence of prompt or delayed high energy emission
    • in the optical (e.g. Palomar Transient Factory, ROTSE)
ligo ipn collaboration with i leonor and p kalmus
LIGO/IPN Collaboration (with I. Leonor and P. Kalmus)
  • The IPN has furnished GRB and SGR times and locations to the LIGO collaboration since the very early engineering runs
  • During the 5th Science Run (November 2005 – September 2007) we have identified 380 GRBs and numerous SGRs which occurred when both LIGO and Virgo had good data
  • This is the largest GRB sample used in a gravitational wave search to date
  • IPN bursts constitute a large sample of nearby events, and one short-duration GRB every 12 days, a fairly high rate
bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
  • A list of all the bursts observed by the IPN is available on the website
    • Which spacecraft detected them
    • Nature of the event (GRB, SGR, possible GRB, solar…)
    • 24,657 entries, 1990 – 2010 (only 8869 are confirmed bursts)
    • Localization data on 6345 events
  • Most IPN bursts are no longer announced in GCN Circulars, unless they are unusual in some way, or seem to merit rapid follow-up observations
slide12
“SN 1996cr is additionally matched to 4B 960202 at the ~3σ confidence level,…”
    • The IPN annulus rules this out
  • “A total of 11 confirmed bursts … were observed over the period UT 2007 Jan. 1 to Feb. 15…”
    • The actual number was 36
ipn database
IPN Database
  • The IPN database is public: ssl.berkeley.edu/ipn3
  • Some of the data are not easy to use for some studies, but tools are available to help
  • Contact me for more information
    • khurley@ssl.berkeley.edu
slide14

Monitoring the high energy transient sky with the 9-spacecraft interplanetary network

AGILE Fermi INTEGRAL RHESSI

MESSENGER SwiftSuzakuOdyssey

Wind

S. Golenetskii, R. Aptekar, E. Mazets, V. Pal'shin, D. Frederiks (Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg, I. G. Mitrofanov, D. Golovin, M. L. Litvak, A. B. Sanin (Space Research Institute, Moscow), W. Boynton, C. Fellows, K. Harshman, R. Starr (University of Arizona), A. von Kienlin, A. Rau (MPE, Germany), K. Yamaoka (Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan), M. Ohno, T. Takahashi (ISAS/JAXA, Japan ), Y. Fukazawa (Hiroshima University, Japan), M., Tashiro, Y. Terada (Saitama University, Japan), T. Murakami (Kanazawa University, Japan), K. Makishima (RIKEN, Japan), S. Barthelmy, T. Cline, J. Cummings, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm (Goddard Space Flight Center), J. Goldsten (APL JHU), E. Del Monte, M. Feroci (IASF/INAF, Roma, Italy), M. Marisaldi (IASF/INAF, Bologna, Italy), M. Briggs, V. Connaughton (UAH), C. Meegan (USRA), D. M. Smith (U.C. Santa Cruz), C. Wigger, W. Hajdas (PSI, Switzerland)

Kevin Hurley

UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory

khurley@ssl.berkeley.edu

overlap between swift fermi and ipn bursts based on june 2008 june 2009 data
Overlap between Swift, Fermi, and IPN Bursts(Based on June 2008 – June 2009 data)

Swift

182/yr

Fermi

255/yr

IPN

346/yr

83

52

119

sensitivities
Sensitivities
  • Sensitivity is a function of GRB duration, spectrum, peak flux, and fluence, and the instrument energy range, and time resolution, among other things
  • Using only the GRB fluence, in various energy ranges between ~25 and ~150 keV for a rough comparison:
    • Swift BAT 1.2 x 10-8 erg cm-2
    • Fermi – GBM 4.0 x 10-8 erg cm-2
    • IPN 5.0 x 10-7 erg cm-2
ligo ipn collaboration with i leonor and p kalmus1
LIGO/IPN Collaboration(with I. Leonor and P. Kalmus)
  • The IPN has furnished GRB and SGR times and locations to the LIGO collaboration since the very early engineering runs
  • LIGO upper limits for the IPN GRB 070201 (possible extragalactic giant magnetar flare) were published in Abbott et al., Implications for the Origin of GRB 070201 from LIGO Observations, Ap. J. 681, 1419, 2008
  • LIGO upper limits to IPN and other SGR bursts were published in Abbott et al., Search for Gravitational-Wave Bursts from Soft Gamma Repeaters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 211102, 2008