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The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniques in TinyOS. Title. The Emergence. of Networking Abstractions and Techniques. in TinyOS. Tranditional OS. Multi thread Blocking I/O Model Kernel / User area No power limitaion. Sensor Network OS. Power limitation Small memory

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The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniques in TinyOS


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    1. The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniquesin TinyOS

    2. Title The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniques in TinyOS

    3. Tranditional OS • Multi thread • Blocking I/O Model • Kernel / User area • No power limitaion

    4. Sensor Network OS • Power limitation • Small memory • Restricted H/W • Wireless Commucation

    5. TinyOS • Origin from Smart Dust project of US. Berkely • Embedded • Componente-based • Completely non-blocking

    6. TinyOS: Design • Current and likely future design • Diverse implementation • Address the specific and unusual challenges

    7. TinyOS: H/W • rene mote • Released in 2000 • 4MHz, 8kB flash, 0.5kB RAM, 10kBaud

    8. TinyOS: H/W • mica • Released in 2002 • 4MHz, 128kB flash, 4kB RAM, 40kBaud

    9. TinyOS: H/W • mica2 • Released in 2003 • 7MHz, 128kB flash, 4kB RAM, 40kBaud

    10. TinyOS: H/W • iMote • Released in 2003 • 12MHz, 512kB flash, 64kB RAM, 460kBaud

    11. TinyOS: Application • Habitat Monitoring • Great Duck Island • Vineyard in British Columbia • Keep energy consumption low

    12. Great Duck Island

    13. Great Duck Island

    14. TinyOS: Application • Shooter Localization • Origin of bullet in an urban setting • A high sample rate and fine-grain time sync

    15. Sensor Network-Based Countersniper System at Stanford Univ.

    16. TinyOS: Application • Pursuer-Evader • Mote localization and advanced route

    17. Network in TinyOS • Low bandwidth • Consumes majority of the active power • Issues • Discovery • Routing • Reliability • Congestion control

    18. Single hop: Active Messages • rene Gray Components abstract hardware

    19. Single hop: Active Messages • mica Gray Components abstract hardware

    20. Single hop: Active Messages • mica2 Gray Components abstract hardware

    21. Single hop: Active Messages • mica S-MAC Gray Components abstract hardware

    22. Multi hop • Tree-based collection • Route or aggregate data to endpoint • Intra-networking routing • Data is transferred between in-network endpoints • And disseminate to entire region

    23. Tree-Based Routing • Based on • A parent node ID • Hop-count or depth from the tree root • A node routes a packet by transmitting it with the parent • Until the packet reaches the root of the tree • AMROUTE, BLess, Surge, mh6, MultiHopRouter

    24. Intra-network Routing • DSDV, AODV • Unicast routing to specific endpoints • GPSR • Node’s geographical locaion • Intra-network routing is uncommon in TinyOS • Except Pursuer-Evader

    25. Broadcast and Epidemic Protocols • Broadcast • For reconfigure filter setting or radio transmit power • For distribute new version of TinyOS programs • Simple flooding protocol • Common, easily implemented • Epidemic algorithm • Epidemic only transmits when needed • Local suppression mechanisms can reduce redundant transmission: saving energy

    26. Network Service: Power Management • TinyOS manages power management • Each service can be stopped • HPLPowerManagment Component put the processor into the lowest-power mode • TinyOS timer service can function in the extremely-low-power, power-save mode • Cross-layer control at a very low-level • HPLPowerManagement can switch the processor into various lower-power modes.

    27. Time Synchronization • For combine a set of coincident readings from different location, need to establish the temporal consistency of data • TDMA-style media access protocols for slot coordination • Power-aware approaches to communication scheduling • Low-level time sync were unsuccessful • Get and set system time and time stamp message

    28. General Abstraction • The AM abstraction • Stable since the earliest TinyOS • Tree-based routing(the Send and Intercept interfaces) • Route(Berkeley), HSN, AODV, DSDV() use this interface

    29. Specialized Abstraction • Power management and Time synchronization • General abstractions of these services are very hard to get right • Requirements of applications vary dramitically • Accurate to within a few milliseconds with a small set of other nodes • Globally synchronized clock that is much less accruate

    30. In-Flux Abstractions • Commonly found but changing between applications and H/W version • Epidemic propagation • Radio MAC • Channel activity, the use of control packet per data packet, backoff, link estimation

    31. Absent Abstractions • Expected to find in TinyOS but that were absent in the code base • Distributed cluster formation • Incoming(receive) queues

    32. Communication Scheduling and Snooping • Communication scheduling • To disabling the radio expect druing pre-arranged time • Snooping • Receiving packets that might not even be destined for a node • To acquire network neighborhood

    33. Cross-Layer Control • Routing stacks share network neighborhood information between link state(low layer) and network layer(higher layer) • Avoiding duplicating data • Conserving RAM • Provision by the network stack of low-level information to a higher level • Avoid unnecessary communication

    34. Static Resource Allocation • Allow buffer for the network, sensor, UART and the other OS services at complie-time • RAM is valuable in TinyOS

    35. EmNets vs. the Internet • Networking Abstractions in sensor network differ from tranditional Internet abstractions • Resource constraints • Very different set of goal and principles • Sensor networks are • Homogeneous system • Application-specific and collaborative perpose • Every node is both a sensor and a router

    36. Conclusion • Classify the most prominent abstractions in TinyOS • General, Special, In-flux, Absent • Find Several techqiunces • Closs-layer control • Static resource allocation • WSNs is drivend by • Power management • Limited resource • Real-time conistraints

    37. David Culler