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Chapter Two. Roots and Meaning of Culture “Ways of Life” A learned behaviors (figures 2.1,2.2). Components of Culture.

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chapter two

Chapter Two

Roots and Meaning of Culture

“Ways of Life”

A learned behaviors

(figures 2.1,2.2)

components of culture
Components of Culture
  • Culture Traits - smallest units of learned behavior, holy cows, chopsticks, eating habits, dialects, beliefs....(Howdy.. You’ll…), when individual traits are functionally interrelated, they create a ->
  • Culture Complex - from combination of Traits, fig 2.3,(African Culture)
  • Culture Region - areal extent, a portion of the earth’s surface occupied by population sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics.
  • Culture Realm - even larger area. (fig 2.4)
  • Globalization - interaction between cultures are high. iPod, cell phones in China

Interaction of People and Environment - cultural ecology: the study of the relationship between a culture group and the natural environment it occupies

  • Environments as Controls
    • Environ. Determinism – dismissed by geographers
    • Possibilism – people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development
  • Human Impacts
    • Cultural landscape [fig 2.5, Chaco Canyon (page 42), Easter Island (fig 2.7)] – the earth’s surface as modified by human actions, is the tangible physical record of a given culture.
roots of culture
Roots of Culture
  • In pre-agricultural periods - Brief History
    • Paleolithic (figs 2.8 & 2.9) Hunter-gatherers: used stone tools to gather foods in areas (w. central and NE Europe - covered with tundra; S Europe – forest)
    • By the end of Paleolithic period, humans had spread to all the continents but Antarctic. (fig 2.10)
    • 2 ½ day workweek is enough to support bushmen’s families. Time was available for developing skills for tools, art and sculpture.
    • By the end of Ice Age (11,000 to 12,000 bp) language, religion, long-dist trade, permanent settlements, and social stratification within groups have well been developed in many European culture areas.
seeds of change
Seeds of Change
  • Agricultural Origins and Spread
    • warmer climate, increased production of food, increase “carryingcapacity”, entered “Mesolithic” (Middle Stone Age) period.(11,000 - 5,000 B.C.)
    • Domestication of plants and animals, plants -perhaps 20,000 b.p. Major centers of plant and animal domestication (fig 2.12)
    • migration of first farmers (fig 2.13)
  • Neolithic Innovations - new and advanced tools/tech for agricultural env. (fig 2.14, 2.17a), religion, specialized professionals.
  • Culture Hearth
  • Culture Hearth - emerged in the Neolithic period (fig 2.15), Two processes
    • Multilinear Evolution -
    • Cultural Convergence
the structure of culture
The Structure of Culture
  • Ideological Subsystem
    • Mentifacts (fig 2.19c)
  • Technological Subsystem
    • Artifacts (fig 2.19a)
  • Sociological Subsystem
    • Sociofacts (fig 2.19b)
  • Cultural Integration
culture change
Culture Change
  • Innovation (top five inventions you cannot live without?)
  • Diffusion
    • Expansion: hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
    • Relocation: (fig 2.21, 2.22, 2.23)
    • Spatial Diffusion of Wal-Mart: Contagious and Reverse Hierarchical Elements
    • Chinese Inventions : gunpowder, printing, and spaghetti, however, diffusion routes are not documented (silk road?)
  • Acculturation and Transculturation (fig 2.24) Cultural Modification
  • Acculturation – immigrants, tribal European in areas of Roman conquest, native Americans loss culture due to European settlement
  • Transculturation – Baseball in Japan and Green Tea in the U.S.
  • Read “A Homemade Culture”
    • Bed pattern from New East, modified in N Europe
    • Cotton, domesticated in India, Silk – discovered in China
    • Soap invented by the ancient Gauls
    • Glass invented in Egypt
    • Rubber discovered by Central American Indians
    • …….
contact between regions
Contact between Regions
  • Diffusion Barriers - distance, time, culture (more similar two cultures,,easier to adopt innovation) 
  • Diffusion is a selective process. – French Canadians less influenced by Anglo culture.
  • Syncretism - process of the fusion of the old and new cultures. Example….