Understanding students with autism
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Understanding Students with Autism. Chapter 11. Definition. Autism is a developmental disability that affects children prior to the age of three in three areas: Verbal and nonverbal communication Social interaction Academic performance. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (also used).

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Definition
Definition

  • Autism is a developmental disability that affects children prior to the age of three in three areas:

    • Verbal and nonverbal communication

    • Social interaction

    • Academic performance


Pervasive developmental disorder also used
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (also used)

  • Spectrum disorder : runs the continuum of mild to severe

    • Rett syndrome

    • Childhood disintegrative disorder

    • Asperger syndrome

    • Pervasive developmental disorder


Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome

  • Significant challenges in social and emotional functioning

  • Do not have delays in language development or intellectual functioning

  • Boys are identified 4 to 1


Prevalence
Prevalence

  • U.S. Dept. of Ed. 2005 reported

    • 132,333 student with autism

    • Asperger syndrome is 2.5 children in every 10,000

    • CDC 2008 reports 1 in 150


National facts and statistics autism society of america 2007
National Facts and StatisticsAutism Society of America -2007

  • 1 in 150-166 births (1)

  • 1 to 1.5 million Americans (2)

  • Fastest-growing developmental disability

  • 10 - 17 % annual growth

  • Growth comparison during the 1990s (3) :

    • U.S. population increase: 13%

    • Disabilities increase: 16%

    • Autism increase: 172%

  • $90 billion annual cost (4)

  • 90% of costs are in adult services4

  • Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with early diagnosis and intervention (4)

  • In 10 years, the annual cost will be $200-400 billion (5)



More questions on trends
More questions on trends

  • Are we over identifying ?

    • No, there is evidence we are still under identifying in early years..

  • Are other states finding the same rates ?

    • Yes and some at much higher rates

  • Will the ASD Child Count continue to increase?

    • Analysis of MDE Child Count and NIH data predicts continued increase.

  • What forecasts or estimates can be made ?

    • 1/500 to 1/166 births (NIH, 2004 and CDC, 2006)

    • Increase of secondary-age students 2x by 2010


Communication characteristics
Communication Characteristics

  • Focus attention on one topic only

  • Limit a communication topic to fewer than a couple of interactions

  • Use limited gestures to supplement verbal skills

  • Reverse Pronouns (you want to have a snack now vs I want to…

  • Look away from the speaker - lacks eye contact


Other characteristics
Other Characteristics

  • Echolalia

  • Atypical social development

  • Repetitive behavior

  • Self-injurious behavior

  • Aggression

  • Need for environmental predictability


Sensory and movement disorders
Sensory and Movement Disorders

  • Under or overresponsiveness to sensory stimuli

  • Movement is associated to abnormal posture, abnormal movements and eye movements


Intellectual functioning
Intellectual functioning

  • 64 - 70 % have MR

  • Individual’s with Asperger syndrome tend to have higher IQ’s than others with autism

  • Savant syndrome: extraordinary abilities in calendar calculating, musical ability, mathematical skills, memorization


Historical causes
Historical Causes

  • 1940s - refrigerator mothers

  • 1970s - biochemical dysfunction

  • Current: possible biomedical - abnormalities in brain development, neurochemistry, and genetic factors


Determining the presence
Determining the Presence

  • Early childhood years by interdisciplinary team

  • Assessments can be same as children with MR

  • Others include: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Diagnostic Interview



Issues for classroom teacher
Issues for Classroom Teacher

  • Carefully structured environment

  • Predictable routines

  • Visual cuing

  • Implementing a communication system

  • Emphasizing communication, socialization, and functional academics in the curriculum


Behavioral strategies
Behavioral Strategies

  • Conduct a Functional Behavioral Analysis

    • Determine the cause of the behavior

    • What are they trying to get out of the behavior

    • In what contexts does the behavior occur

    • What are the antecedents and consequences

    • What are the communicative functions of the behavior


Mnemonic strategies
Mnemonic Strategies

  • Keyword (link a keyword to a new word to be learned)

  • Pegword (for numbered or order)

  • Letter (acronym)


Promoting friendships
Promoting Friendships

  • Include students in all areas

  • Use peer buddy programs

  • Use person-centered planning models that involve peers

  • Ensure peers learn about the goals of inclusion


Video
Video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnylM1hI2jc