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Georgia Studies. Unit 3-Statehood, Revolution, and Westward Expansion Lesson 1-Cause of the American Revolution. Lesson 1-Causes of the American Revolution. Essential Question -How did the causes of the American Revolution impact Georgia?

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Georgia studies
Georgia Studies

  • Unit 3-Statehood, Revolution, and Westward Expansion

  • Lesson 1-Cause of the American Revolution

Lesson 1 causes of the american revolution
Lesson 1-Causes of the American Revolution

  • Essential Question

    -How did the causes of the American Revolution impact Georgia?

    -Why was trade so important to the colonies during the American Revolution?

North america 1754
North America, 1754

  • Spain claimed Florida and Mexico

  • France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great Lakes, and parts of Canada; New Orleans (south) and Detroit (north) anchored French settlements

  • Great Britain had established the 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast

French and indian war origins
French and Indian War Origins

  • France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of the American continent

  • Both countries feared the other would gain the most power

  • France had the stronger army with more experienced leadership; British had better navy

  • Both sides had allies with certain Indian tribes

The french and indian war
The French and Indian War

  • Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley area

  • The French built several forts in the area; many Indians sided with the French

  • The Virginia governor sent Captain George Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity; a battle erupted

  • The war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British controlled the Ohio Valley

  • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war; the British were victorious.

Georgia and the war s aftermath
Georgia and the War’s Aftermath

  • Treaty of Paris set Georgia’s western boundary at the Mississippi River

  • Proclamation of 1763 (King George III): Georgia’s southern boundary set at St. Mary’s River; Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains as the land was reserved for Native Americans.

  • Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and the costal region

Unhappy with british acts
Unhappy with British Acts

  • Great Britain needed money; much debt and security expenses resulted from the French and Indian War

  • Sugar Act: tax on sugar and molasses imported from the West Indies

  • Stamp Act: tax on newspapers, legal documents, and licenses

  • Georgians disapproved of these acts

The liberty boys
The Liberty Boys

  • Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty”

  • Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act

  • Some called them “Liberty Brawlers”

  • Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s Tavern

  • Georgia only colony to actually sell the stamps

  • Stamp Act was eventually repealed

Protests increase
Protests Increase

  • Georgia protested the British taxation (acts) to a small extent. The other 12 colonies were more directly effected by many of these acts and reacted (protested) more strongly.

  • Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of Georgia colonial assembly, led Townshend Act protests

  • Townshend Acts: placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints

  • Governor Wright disbanded the assembly to try to end the protests

Intolerable acts
Intolerable Acts

  • Boston Tea Party-Protest against the Tea Act in Boston, Massachusetts on December 16, 1773. Members of the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Native Americans, dumped 90,000 lbs. of tea into Boston Harbor.

  • Great Britain punished the Massachusetts colony by creating the Coercive Acts

Intolerable acts1
Intolerable Acts

  • The Intolerable Acts had four major effects:

    1. Closed Boston Harbor

    2. Cancelled the Massachusetts Royal Charter

    3. British officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts were tried in Great Britain.

    4. Quartering Act-Citizens of Massachusetts were forced to house and feed British troops at their own experience.

Declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence

  • Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold more than 500,000 copies

  • Other pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinion

  • August 2, 1776:Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton (representatives from Georgia) sign the Declaration of Independence

  • The Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war

Georgia studies1
Georgia Studies

  • Unit 3: Revolution in Georgia

  • Lesson 2: The Revolutionary War Period

Lesson 2 the revolutionary war period
Lesson 2-The Revolutionary War Period

  • Essential Question

    - What role did Georgia and its citizens play in the American Revolution?

First continental congress
First Continental Congress

  • Many of the British colonies in North America had began to protest taxation as long as they were not represented in British Parliament.

  • 12 of the 13 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress; Georgia was not represented.

  • Urged colonies to establish “Committees of Safety”

  • Agreed to stop all trade with Britain

  • Carried on its work in secret

  • “Provincial Congress” held in Savannah in January 1775; less than one-half of Georgia’s parishes were represented

Second continental congress
Second Continental Congress

  • Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battles in Massachusetts.

  • Drafted petition for King George III, asking for end of unfriendly steps against the colonies

  • George III refused to accept the petition

  • Authorized Continental Army

  • Georgia’s Lyman Hall arrived in May 1775

  • August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence

Georgia s second provincial congress
Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress

  • Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July 1775

  • Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent Georgia in Philadelphia

  • Delegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for Georgians

  • Governor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia

Revolutionary war fighting in georgia
Revolutionary War Fighting in Georgia

  • Georgia was divided between patriots and loyalists.

  • Savannah captured and looted by British troops in December 1778; lootings, murders, and burnings occurred

  • Sunbury port captured in early 1779; Augusta was also attacked

  • Georgia militia not effective against well-trained British troops. French military leaders and reinforcements were brought in to train and assist the Continental Army.

  • Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia. Continued to govern from Savannah until 1783.

Battle of kettle creek 1779
Battle of Kettle Creek (1779)

  • Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia

  • Great victory for morale of the militia and Georgians seeking independence

  • Won badly-needed weapons and horses from the British

Siege of savannah 1779
Siege of Savannah (1779)

  • 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to Savannah

  • Attack on October 9 resulted in 1,000 American and French deaths in less than an hour; only 40 British troops died

  • Polish Count Casimir Pulaski killed

  • Savannah remained under British control, and the leadership of James Wright, for nearly four more years

  • Guerrilla warfare continued in the Georgia backcountry

Georgia wartime heroes
Georgia Wartime Heroes

  • Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a group of British loyalists who bragged of murdering an American colonel; Hart County is the only county named for a woman

  • Austin Dabney fought with distinction and was wounded at Kettle Creek; he also saved Elijah Clarke’s life during that battle.

The war ends
The War Ends

  • Elijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia, and the Continental Army regain Augusta from British in June 1781; 11 battles or skirmishes fought in Georgia during the war

  • George Washington, with French help, force British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781

  • British leave Savannah in the spring of 1782

  • Treaty of Paris (September 1783) ends war; treaty is signed by United States, Great Britain, and France