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CS465 -Unix. System Administration. What does the System Administrator do?. Starts/stops the system Maintains the file system and user accounts Installs HW and SW Configures TCP/IP Performs system accounting, performance monitoring, and security. UNIX Processes. Program vs Process

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Cs465 unix

CS465 -Unix



What does the system administrator do
What does the System Administrator do?

  • Starts/stops the system

  • Maintains the file system and user accounts

  • Installs HW and SW

  • Configures TCP/IP

  • Performs system accounting, performance monitoring, and security

Unix processes
UNIX Processes

  • Program vs Process

    • Aprogram is an executable file.

    • A process is an instance of the program in execution.

  • When a process invokes a new program it creates a child process

  • A new process is created each time you execute a non-kernel command

    • Current process (parent) forks a new process (child)

    • ps shows process identifier (PID) and the parent process identifier (PPID)

Process creation functions
Process Creation Functions

  • UNIX provides two key functions that operate on processes:

    • fork - creates a duplicate process

      • Almost all info copied from original (parent)

      • New process has a unique process ID, which is returned to the parent process.

    • exec - loads a program from a file and overwrites the existing code

Creating new processes
Creating New Processes

  • Example:

    #include <stdio.h>

    #include <stdlib.h> /* system calls */



    if ( fork() == 0) /* child */

    execl("/bin/ps", "ps", NULL);


    wait(); /* parent */

    printf("child’s ps done\n");


  • Note: Anyone (not just system administrator) can create new processes.

Startup processes
Startup Processes

  • init process

    • last step in booting procedure

    • creates other processes to allow the users to login

  • getty process

    • conditions for terminal connection

    • waits for user-id

      • display login on the screen

  • login process

    • checks password with the uid

    • executes .profile or .login (depends on default shell)

    • displays shell prompt

  • shell process (command line interpreter) displays prompt

Startup process diagram







Terminal for login






Check password





Command interpreter



Startup Process Diagram

Process 0: Kernel bootstrap. Start process 1.


kernal mode

user mode

Process 1: create processes to allow login.


System startup processes
System Startup Processes


root 1 0 0 Oct01 ? Ss 0:01 init [2]

root 2944 1 0 Oct01 tty1 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty1

root 2946 1 0 Oct01 tty2 Ss+ 0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty2

Who can perform system administrator duties
Who can perform system administrator duties?

  • Need root privileges to run many sysadmin commands

    • Can log in directly as user root

      • rwx privileges will not affect root


    • Log in under your own username

    • Use su to switch to root

    • Maintains a log of which user logged into the root account

The su utility
The su utility

  • If you are logged in as an ordinary user, you may use switch user (su):

    $ su [username]

    If no username is listed, su will switch you to the root account.

  • Example:

    $ su

    Password: (enter root password)


    Note that the prompt changes from $ to #

Security issue
Security Issue

  • If you are using su from someone else’s terminal to switch to root, you should ALWAYS type the entire path to avoid Trojan Horse programs:

    $ /bin/su <-- acadunix

    or sometimes:

    $ /usr/bin/su

Root commands
root commands

  • Most system administration commands are in the /usr/etc or /usr/bin directory

    Add /usr/etc to the root’s path by adding


    to the /.profile file

Root precautions
root precautions

  • When you are logged in as root, you should:

    • Test destructive commands non-destructively (Example: use ls before rm)

    • Create /etc/securetty to have a list of allowable terminals for root login

    • Only become root to do single specific tasks. Return back to your normal user shell (via exit command) until you are sure what needs to be done by root and to do your own work.

    • Always be slow and deliberate running as root. Your actions could affect a lot of things. Think before you type!

Su s other use
su’s other use

  • You can also use switch user (su) to gain access to any user account

    $ su [username]

    Creates a subshell environment with user’s id and group id

  • Example:

    $ su jsmith

    Password: (enter jsmith’s password)


  • Note: If you use su from the root account, you will not need to enter a password.

Shutdown utility
shutdown Utility

  • Use shutdown to stop the system. Users are notified of the impending shut down, as are the systems that are mounting resources from the server being shut down.

  • Format:

    shutdown [ -y ] [ -g grace-period ]

    [-i init-state ] [ message ]

  • Example:

    # shutdown -i S -g 120 "===== disk replacement =====“

    Shutdown started. Tue Jun 7 14:51:40 PDT 1994

    Broadcast Message from root (pts/1) on foo Tue Jun 7 14:51:41...

    The system will be shut down in 2 minutes

    ===== disk replacement =====

    Broadcast Message from root (pts/1) on foo Tue Jun 7 14:52:41...

    The system will be shut down in 1 minutes

    ===== disk replacement =====

Halt utility
halt Utility

  • Shuts the system down as quickly as possible (no user warning)

    • Flushes buffers

    • Halts system

  • Format:

    # halt

Single user mode
Single User Mode

  • The system normally runs in multi-user mode.

  • After a system shutdown, you will be in Single User Mode:

    • Creates Bourne shell at console ONLY

      • Automatically logged in as root

    • Used for system maintenance and backup

      • Must issue sync command before returning to multi-user mode (writes changes to hard disk)

    • Can turn off power or reset the system


  • What is a daemon?

    • A process that only needs to be started once, and will lay dormant until it is required

  • Examples:

    • mail daemon

    • login daemon

    • Cron

  • Many system daemons are started on bootup


    daemon 2694 1 0 Oct01 ? Ss 0:00 /usr/sbin/atd

System security what are you trying to protect
System Security:What are you trying to protect?

The Risk:

  • Possibility of an intruder gaining unauthorized access

  • Motivations:

    • The Curious

    • The Malicious

    • The Competition

    • The Borrowers

    • The Leapfrogger

Security issues
Security Issues

Vulnerability: How well protected is your computer?

  • Locate world writable directories

  • Check for unowned files

  • Do not permit .rhosts files

    Password Security

    Use crack on your own system

    Security Policy

    That which is not permitted is prohibited!!

Unix system logs
Unix System Logs

  • Unix keeps track of the following, by UserID:

    • Memory and CPU usage

    • Login/Logout time

    • Pages printed on printers

Checking logs
Checking Logs

Some things to check for in your logs (in directory /var/log or /var/logs):

  • Short or incomplete logs

  • Logs containing strange timestamps

  • Logs with incorrect permissions or ownership

  • Records of reboots or restarting of services

  • Missing logs

  • su entries or logins from strange places

System logins logouts
System logins/logouts

  • System file records all logins, logouts, and reboots, with the most recent activity at the top.

  • Can be viewed using the last command:

    • $ last [-n #] [username]

    • where -n # displays # lines of the file

    • username displays only lines for specific user

  • Each entry includes:

    • user name and login device

    • host that the user is logged in from

    • date and time that the user logged in and logged out

    • total login time in hours and minutes

  • Also includes entries for each reboot


$ last -n6 small000

small000 pts/0 xlate.regis.edu Tue Oct 7 13:37 still logged in

small000 pts/0 dsl-206-53-24-25 Mon Oct 6 18:20 - 18:35 (00:14)

small000 pts/0 xlate.regis.edu Mon Oct 6 14:32 - 16:45 (02:13)

small000 pts/2 xlate.regis.edu Fri Oct 3 14:10 - 14:35 (00:25)

small000 pts/1 dsl-206-53-24-25 Thu Oct 2 19:24 - 19:32 (00:08)

small000 pts/0 dsl-206-53-24-25 Thu Oct 2 14:38 - 15:17 (00:39)


System logins logouts1
System logins/logouts

  • You can log failed command-line login attempts in the /var/adm/loginlog file.

  • To turn on logging, root should create this file with read and write permissions for the root user only, and it should belong to the sys group.

    # touch /var/adm/loginlog# chown root /var/adm/loginlog# chmod 600 /var/adm/loginlog

  • All failed login activity is written to this file automatically after five consecutive failed attempts. If there are less than five consecutive failed attempts, no activity is logged to this file.

  • Each failed attempt entry contains:

    • user's login name

    • login device (TTY port)

    • time of the failed attempt.

Monitoring su usage
Monitoring su usage

  • It is a good idea to monitor who has been using the su command, especially to gain root access.

  • Set the SULOG variable in the /etc/default/su file to set up a file to log all su attempts.

    Example: SULOG=/var/adm/sulog

  • If the SULOG variable is not defined, su command logging is not enabled.

  • The SULOG log file records:

    • the date and time the command was issued,

    • whether it was successful (shown by the plus [+] symbol for success or the hyphen [-] symbol for failure),

    • the device from which the command was issued, the login and the effective identity.

User management
User Management

  • The system administrator can:

    • Add, modify and delete user accounts

    • Establish filesystem quotas

    • Change user passwords

  • Must be logged into the root account to do these things

Logging into the root account
Logging into the root account

  • As the system administrator, you should:

    • log in to a system as a regular user

    • use su to switch to the root user account only when you need to perform system administrative tasks

  • Why?

  • reduces possiblitiy that the system will be left unattended with the root user logged in

  • critical mistakes are less likely to occur if you perform your routine work as a regular system user

User accounts
User Accounts

  • Each user needs a unique:

    • account name

    • user identification (UID) number

    • home directory

      and a login shell.

  • The system administrator also has to determine which groups a user may access.

System files
System Files

  • Unix stores user account and group entry information in the following system files:


    • Stores login account entries for authorized system users (edit file via useradd, usermod & userdel).


    • Shadow of /etc/passwd, but with encrypted passwords


    • Defines the system group entries

Steps for adding a user
Steps for Adding a User

  • Create new user account via useradd

    • (adds new entry into both the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files)

  • Set user password via passwd

  • Add user to /etc/group file

  • Set quotas (if in effect)

Useradd defaults
useradd defaults

  • Format:

    # useradd -D [-g default_group] [-b default_home]

    [-f default_inactive] [-e default_expire_date]

    [-s default_shell]

  • The –D option is used to list/set useradd defaults for account creation:

    # useradd –D








Useradd creating new accounts
useradd – Creating New Accounts

  • useradd without –D, creates new user accounts:

    useradd [-c comment] [-d home_dir]

    [-e expire_date] [-f inactive_time]

    [-g initial_group] [-G group[,...]]

    [-m [-k skeleton_dir] | -M] [-p passwd]

    [-s shell] [-u uid [ -o]] [-n] [-r] login

  • useradd has many options, but the minimum information required is a login name and a real name.

  • The user's real name is considered a "comment" and is given with the -c switch

    # useradd -c "President George Bush" gbush

Notes on adding users
Notes on Adding Users

  • The new user's home directory is either given permission 700 or 711 by default (700 makes the home directory invisible to other users, 711 allows others to list it).

  • By default the user belongs to a group that consists only of himself (primary group). Or you may add the user to other groups that define access permissions to other directories.

  • When a user is added, his home directory is automatically created, with any subdirectories and scripts as defined in /etc/skel

Defining sample user login files
Defining Sample User Login Files

  • /etc/skel contains a "model" for the user's home directory

  • Create any files required by a typical user, for example .profile for a login template

  • Example:

    $ ls -l /etc/skel

    total 6

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 138 Mar 3 2002 local.cshrc

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 607 Dec 22 2001 local.login

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 596 Mar 3 2002 local.profile


User account passwords
User Account Passwords

  • By default, no password is given to a user when you use useradd

  • You must use the passwd command to supply an initial password, which will be encrypted

  • Changing password (user may change own password)

    # passwd jsmith

    Changing password for user jsmith

    New UNIX password:

    Retype new UNIX password:

    passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully


Modifying user accounts
Modifying User Accounts

  • usermod can be used to change user account settings

  • Format (similar to useradd):

    # usermod

    usage: usermod [-u uid [-o]] [-g group] [-G group,..]

    [-d home [-m]] [-s shell] [-c comment] [-l new_name]

    [-f inactive] [-e expire ] [-p passwd] [-L|-U] name

    # usermod -s /bin/ksh jsmith


Deleting user accounts
Deleting User Accounts

  • userdel deletes user accounts from the system

  • Format:

    # userdel [ -r ] login


    - rRemoves the user's home directory and all files below it from the system.

  • Examples:

    # userdel –r jsmith

    # userdel mjones

User groups
User Groups

  • groupadd adds a new group (root only)

    • Format:

      groupadd [-g gid] group

    • Example:

      # groupadd CS465F08

  • Use usermod to add users to the new group:

    # usermod -G CS465F08 jsmith

Communicating with users
Communicating with Users

  • Broadcast message to ALL users on local host:

    $ wall [< msgfile]

  • Takes input from stdin if no msgfile is given (until CTRL-D)

Communicating with users1
Communicating with Users

  • You can also display a “message of the day” to users when they log on

  • Edit the file:


  • Can be used to:

    • Issue announcements

    • Warn of scheduled shutdowns

    • etc

Special files
Special Files

  • Unix treats every device as a file

  • Special files can refer to

    • floppy disk

    • CD-ROM

    • hard disk partitions

    • etc..

  • Special files are located in the /dev directory

    • /dev/fd0first floppy disk

    • /dev/hda1first partition in first hard disk

      -/dev/tty0 first terminal

Installing new devices
Installing New Devices

  • First install the device driver, if necessary

  • Second, run mknod to associate a special file with the actual hardware device

  • Format:

    mknod spec-filename [c|b] major# minor#

    where c = character, b = block device

    major# = device class (uses this device driver)

    minor# = instance within the class

  • Example:

    # mknod /dev/tty0 c 2 0

More on filesystems
More on Filesystems

  • Unix stores files in filesystems

  • A filesystem lives in a hard disk partition, on a floppy or on a CD-ROM or on a networked computer

  • A filesystem must first be created using a special command: newfs or mkfs or something similar

  • Before a filesystem can be used it must be mounted

Mounting filesystems
Mounting Filesystems

  • Only root may mount a filesystem

  • The mount command requires two pieces of information

    • The special file which refers to the device where the filesystem lives

    • The place to make it appear in the filesystem, the mount point

  • Format:

    mount [-t type] device directory

Mounting example
Mounting Example

  • Assuming:

    • /dev/fd0 refers to a floppy drive

    • There already exists a directory called /mnt/floppy

  • The command:

    # mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

    • “Attaches” the floppy filesystem

    • A file abc.txt on the floppy is now accessable as /mnt/floppy/abc.txt

  • The /etc/mtab file contains a list of all currently mounted devices

Mounting filesystems1
Mounting Filesystems


  • Root file system (/) is mounted at boot time and cannot be unmounted

  • All other file systems are mounted BELOW the root

    • A file system can be mounted to a directory of another mounted file system









a file system

Checking on mounted filesystems
Checking on Mounted Filesystems

  • The mount command with no arguments will displayed the currently mounted filesystems

    $ mount

    /dev/hda1 on / type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)

    tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)

    proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)

    sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)

    udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)

    tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)

    devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5)

    /dev/sda2 on /usr type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)

    /dev/sdb1 on /tmp type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)

    /dev/sdb2 on /opt type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)


Disk freespace statistics
Disk Freespace Statistics

  • dfdisplays the number of free blocks and the number of files in each file system, or a particular file system

  • Format:

    $ df [filesystem]

  • Examples:

    • $ df

    • Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on

    • /dev/hda1 2464936 287432 2052288 13% /

    • udev 10240 56 10184 1% /dev

    • /dev/sda2 6823216 2709144 4114072 40% /usr

    • /dev/sdb1 4031664 33108 3793760 1% /tmp

    • /dev/sdb2 4719996 548264 3931964 13% /opt

    • /dev/sdc1 8744304 534828 7765284 7% /home

    • $ df /dev/sdb1

    • Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on

    • /dev/sdb1 4031664 33108 3793760 1% /tmp

Disk usage statistics
Disk Usage Statistics

  • du displays disk usage statistics (# of 512k blocks)

  • Format:

    • $ du –a [filename]

    • If no filename given, gives usage of each directory file in the current directory.

    • -a summaries for each file

Disk usage statistics 2
Disk Usage Statistics (2)

  • Examples:

    $ du # block size of directories in current directory

    8 ./sub1

    28 ./sub2

    84 .

  • $ du -a # block size of each file in current directory

  • 2 ./bye.c

  • 14 ./greet

  • 2 ./hello.c

  • 8 ./sub1

  • 28 ./sub2

  • 84 .

  • $ du greet # block size of file greet only

  • 14 greet

  • $

Need for archive utilities
Need for Archive Utilities

  • Archive refers to backup (with or without data compression)

    • Data compression saves disk space / transmission time

  • Combines multiple files/directory into one file

    • Easier to maintain and transfer (download)

  • Extra integrity checking (CRC)

Archiving for backup
Archiving for Backup

  • Regular backup helps recover from:

    • Disasters (disk crash / fire / flood)

    • Human errors (accidentally deleting files / directory)

    • Software errors that corrupt data / files (including viruses)

  • Good idea to keep multiple generations and strategic snapshots (e.g. year end / month end) of backups

  • Backup devices – tapes, CDR/CDRW, etc

Archiving files with tar
Archiving files with tar

  • Unlike other systems, Unix has one tool for archiving multiple files within one file — tar —and another forcompressing the archive — compress

  • A compressedtar archive is a common format for distributing Unix software

  • Look for:

    name.tar.Z compressed tar file

Using tar
Using tar

Archives files to and extracts files from a single file called a tar file. Default device for a tar file is a magnetic tape.

  • Format:

    $ tar key[options] files-to-archive

  • Keys:

    c create new archive

    rappend files to archive

    u update (only save files if more recent)

    t list contents of archive (or files if specified)

    x extract files from archive

Using tar 2
Using tar (2)

  • Format:

    • $ tar key[options] files-to-archive

  • Options (note: no dash in front of options):

    f filename follows - read from/write to next argument (instead of default tar drive) Argument of dash (-) uses standard I/O

    v verbose mode – lists each file as tar processes it

Examples of tar usage
Examples of tar usage

$ tar cf test.tar ~/test

  • create newarchivefile, test.tar, comprising the entire test subtree

    $ tar tf test.tar

  • list contents of test.tar

    $ tar tf - test.tar | more

  • list contents to stdout and pipe to more

    $ tar xvf test.tar

  • extract files (with verify) from archive file

Tar current directory tree
tar current directory tree

$ tar cvf tar1.tar .

a ./ 0K

a ./secret/ 0K

a ./secret/ltr1 1K

a ./secret/ltr2 1K


$ tar tvf tar1.tar

tar: blocksize = 10

drwxr-xr-x 4110/1501 0 Mar 1 23:14 2003 ./

drwxr-xr-x 4110/1501 0 Mar 1 23:14 2003 ./secret/

-rw-r--r-- 4110/1501 14 Mar 1 23:14 2003 ./secret/ltr1

-rw-r--r-- 4110/1501 16 Mar 1 23:14 2003 ./secret/ltr2


NOTE: Using relative path (.) allows restoration anywhere

Extracting from a tar archive
Extracting from a tar archive

$ tar xvf tar1.tar

tar: blocksize = 10

x ., 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks

x ./secret, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks

x ./secret/ltr1, 14 bytes, 1 tape blocks

x ./secret/ltr2, 16 bytes, 1 tape blocks

tar: can't set time on .: Not owner


Selective restoration from tar archive
Selective restoration from tar archive

$ tar xvf tar1.tar ./secret/ltr1

tar: blocksize = 10

x ./secret/ltr1, 14 bytes, 1 tape blocks


$ tar xvf tar1.tar `tar tvf tar1.tar | grep secret`

tar: blocksize = 10

x ./secret, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks

x ./secret/ltr1, 14 bytes, 1 tape blocks

x ./secret/ltr2, 16 bytes, 1 tape blocks


Compressing files
Compressing Files

  • File compression makes a file smaller

  • Format:

    $ compress [–cv] [filename]

  • Options:

    -c Send output to stdout

    -v Show % compression achieved

  • Replaces original file with compressed file (.Z is added to the filename)

Compression examples
Compression Examples

$ ls w*


$ compress -v whofile

whofile: Compression: 53.55% -- replaced with whofile.Z

$ ls w*



  • $ ls w*

  • whofile

  • $ compress -cv whofile > whofile.compress

  • whofile: Compression: 53.55%

  • $ ls w*

  • whofile whofile.compress

  • $

Uncompressing files
Uncompressing Files

  • Format:

    $ uncompress [–cv] [filename]

  • Options:

    -c Get input from stdin (instead of .Z file)

    and send output to stdout

    -v Output message saying what was done (only works if –c NOT used)

  • By default, (no –c) finds .Z file and uncompresses it. Replaces .Z file with original file ( no .Z )

Uncompression examples
Uncompression Examples

$ ls w*

whofile.compress whofile.Z

$ uncompress –v whofile

whofile.Z: -- replaced with whofile

$ ls -l w*

-rw------- 1 small000 faculty 8428 May 19 11:29 whofile

-rw------- 1 small000 faculty 3914 Jun 15 15:24 whofile.compress


  • $ uncompress -c < whofile.compress > who2

  • $ ls w*

  • who2 whofile whofile.compress

  • $ rm whofile.compress

  • $ ls w*

  • who2 whofile

  • $

Compressing archives
Compressing archives

  • Use a pipeline to compress archives:

    $ tar cvf - | compress > test.tar.Z

  • Likewise to access a compressed archive:

    $ uncompress -c test.tar.Z | tar tf -

Tar archive with compression
tar archive – with compression

  • Use ‘–’ to set tar’ s output / input to stdout / stdin so that compress can process it

    $ tar cf - . | compress > tar1.tar.Z

    $ uncompress < tar1.tar.Z | tar tvf -

    tar: blocksize = 10

    drwxr-xr-x 4110/1501 0 Mar 1 23:14 2001 ./

    drwxr-xr-x 4110/1501 0 Mar 1 23:14 2001 ./secret/

    -rw-r--r-- 4110/1501 14 Mar 1 23:14 2001 ./secret/ltr1

    -rw-r--r-- 4110/1501 16 Mar 1 23:14 2001 ./secret/ltr2


Restore compressed tar archive
Restore compressed tar archive

  • Use ‘–’ to set tar’ s output / input to stdout / stdin so that compress can process it

    $ uncompress < tar1.tar.Z | tar xvf -

    tar: blocksize = 10

    x ., 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks

    x ./secret, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks

    x ./secret/ltr1, 14 bytes, 1 tape blocks

    x ./secret/ltr2, 16 bytes, 1 tape blocks

    tar: can't set time on .: Not owner


Cpio archives
cpio Archives

  • cpio creates backup archives with file owner and group retained

  • cpio needs a list of files to backup from stdin

    • Generally use find to feed filenames to cpio

  • Format:

    $ cpio –o [options]

    Create archive (out) - Reads stdin for list of files and sends archive to stdout

    $ cpio –i [options] [patterns]

    Retrieve from archive (in)- Extract files from stdin, optionally based on patterns and sends to stdout

Cpio options
cpio options

  • Options:

    -a reset access times

    -c create ASCII standard headers for compatibility on other machines.

    -d create directories as needed

    -t table of contents

    -u copies older files over newer ones

    -v verbose – display files being copied

Creating a cpio archive
Creating a cpio archive

Use the –o option to create the archive:

$ find . -print | cpio -ov > /tmp/cpio1





10 block


Restoring a cpio archive i
Restoring a cpio archive (-i)

Display contents:

$ cpio -ivt < /tmp/cpio1

drwxr-xr-x 3 kwchiu cs 0 Mar 1 23:14 2001, .

drwxr-xr-x 2 kwchiu cs 0 Mar 1 23:14 2001, secret

-rw-r--r-- 1 kwchiu cs 14 Mar 1 23:14 2001, secret/ltr1

-rw-r--r-- 1 kwchiu cs 16 Mar 1 23:14 2001, secret/ltr2

10 blocks


$ cpio -ivd < /tmp/cpio1


cpio: Existing "secret/ltr1" same age or newer

cpio: Existing "secret/ltr2" same age or newer

10 blocks

2 error(s)


More cpio examples
More cpio Examples

  • Create archive on tape of all files in the proj subdirectory

    • $ find proj -print | cpio -ocv > /dev/rmt8

  • Create archive in file proj.cpio of all files in the proj subdirectory

    • $ find proj -print | cpio -ocv > proj.cpi

  • Read from archive file on tape and extract all .c files, creating directories as needed

    • $ cpio -icdv "*.c" < /dev/rmt8

Cs465 unix

  • dump backs up a large file system

  • Format:

    $ dump [level][f dumpfile][v][w][files|filesys]

    Levels: 0 through 10 available levels

    0 = all files

    1 = all files since last 0

    2 = all files since last 0 or 1, etc

    v verify

    w list files that would be backed up (but don’t do it)


  • restore retrieves files from a dump file

  • Format:

    restore -irtx [f dumpfile] [files]

    -i interactive shell selects files to restore

    -r restore all files in current directory

    -t table of contents

    -x restore only specified files

Dump restore examples
dump/restore Examples

  • Backup all files on disk dev/da3 and verify:

    • # dump 0 v /dev/rmt0 /dev/da3

  • Restore all files from /bin in the archive to /bin on the system:

    • # pwd

    • /bin

    • # restore –r f /dev/rmt0 /bin