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Leisure Education Part 2
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  1. Leisure Education Part 2 HPR 450

  2. Potential of Leisure Education • Three areas of focus • Managing constraints to leisure participation • Facilitating the leisure experience • Promoting leisure through leisure education

  3. Constraints • Reactance • Learned Helplessness • Boredom • Structural Constraints • Interpersonal Constraints • Intrapersonal Constraints

  4. Managing constraints • Individuals strive for ‘circumstantial’ freedom – the ability to act according to interests, desires or wishes • Barriers to circumstantial freedom include work, school, family, other tasks (housework, car repair) that take precedence, lack of time, lack of money • Subjective perceptions influence peoples’ beliefs about constraints (leisure participation may depend more on the ability to negotiate constraints than the absence of constraints)

  5. Managing constraints cont’d • People find a variety of ways to negotiate constraints • Leisure constraints do not necessarily result in nonparticipation • Leisure participation varies based on negotiation of or absence of constraints • What busy people do you know who find time to do a lot? Is it easier to do more when you are busy? Do you get more done during the semester or during break?

  6. Adherence • Continued participation in an activity that is typically motivated by previous experiences of success, enjoyment, and satisfaction • Enjoyment is a source of adherence in part because it influences intrinsic motivation

  7. Facilitating the Leisure Experience • Flow • Optimal arousal • Social connections

  8. For Flow to occur ( per Csikszentmihalyi) • An activity often (but not always) • Presents a set of challenges matched to the persons level of skills • Has rules • Has clear goals • Provides immediate feedback • Games and play are good examples of flow activities • “Autotelic” is the term for people who maintain and create flow situations in everyday life

  9. Flow cont’d Conditions • Challenge-Skill match • Specific Rules • Clear Goals • Immediate feedback Flow Experience • Concentration • Effort • Sense of control • Consequences of Flow • Enjoyment • Adherence • Satisfaction • Complex Cognition • Self-Actualization • Intrinsic Motivation

  10. Optimal Arousal (iso-Ahola) (without labels)

  11. How it works • Not enough stimlation – motivation is to seek arousal • Too much stimulation – motivation to escape arousal • Individuals may seek stability (security) and novelty (change) from activities – can alter activities to lean toward one or the other

  12. Social Connection • Leisure may provide: • Non coercive interaction • Connectedness with others and community • Emotional value, sense of well-being • Meet needs for relatedness • Sense of continuity (consistency) in life • Something familiar and constant during times of transition

  13. How does leisure education promote leisure?

  14. Leisure education • Creates opportunities for all people for expression, development and relationships • Builds options, especially if decision-making and choice are emphasized (rather than simply the provision of diversionary activities) • Empowers individuals – including those who might have fewer opportunities or be thought of as weaker/less strong (poor, older adults, females, individuals with disabilities, who else?)

  15. Leisure education • Develops relevant skills • Social/solitary • Active/restful • High intensity/low intensity • Engagement/escape • Provides exposure to and development of ‘core’ (used through the lifespan) activities • Interact informally with others • Converse in a variety of settings • Develop relationships • Enhance living environments • Maintain fitness

  16. Leisure Education Sample Activities for Programming HPR 450

  17. A few words about adaptation • Four broad guidelines • Focus on person first – individualize adaptations, concentrate on abilities, match challenge and skills • Encourage autonomy – facilitate independence, determine adaptation necessity, view adaptations as transitional • Involve participants – discuss adaptations, determine feasibility, ensure safety • Evaluate adaptations – conduct observations, make adjustments, consider original task

  18. Areas of concentration • Appreciate leisure • Aware of self in leisure • Self determination in leisure • Interact socially • Use resources • Decision making • Leisure/recreation skills

  19. Appreciate leisure – intro activity • Go around a circle, introduce yourself and also identify a leisure activity that starts with the same letter as your first name. After the first person, each person repeats the preceding name and activity before introducing him or herself. • Debrief • Dattilo pg 205-206

  20. Awareness of self in leisure – learning activity • The participants sit in a circle. Each participant has 5 blank index cards and writes the name of one leisure or recreation activity on each card. Put all cards in a basket or hat, then leader removes a card and points to a person in the group. The leader reads the activity and the person has 5 seconds to provide a one word response that describes his or her attitude toward the activity. Moving clockwise from that person, everyone has 5 seconds to provide a one word response to the activity. Be honest and it is OK to repeat a word if it represents your true feelings. • Debrief • Dattilo pg 242-243

  21. Self-determination in leisure – learning activity • Everyone lists 5 leisure/recreation things that they like to do (“leisure preferences”) • Beside each, indicate at least one reason why you want to do that activity • After everyone is finished, we will make a list of the reasons (not the preferences) • Debrief • Dattilo pg 280

  22. Interact socially during leisure – learning activity • Stand in a circle. Go around the circle, say your name, and act out a leisure activity you enjoy. • Can the others identify the activity? • If so, what gave it away. If not, what would have helped • Debrief • Dattilo pg 291 (adapted)

  23. Use leisure resources – learning activity • Think of a leisure or recreational activity you would like to participate in but have not done so to date. • Identify anything that will cost you money (including travel, equipment, lessons, etc.) • Determine an estimated total for your participation as well as possible sources or resources • Share your findings with each other • Debrief • Dattilo pg 330 (adapted)

  24. Make decisions about leisure – learning activity • Think of a leisure activity (or up to three) that you would like to do on a day you do not have to work or go to class • Consider all of the advantages of doing that activity. Make a list of 5-10 advantages • Consider all of the disadvantages. Make a list of 5-10 disadvantages (same number as advantages) • Assign each advantage and disadvantage a number between 1 and 10. Lower numbers go with things that are more important. You can use the same number more than once. • Share how you prioritized the advantages and disadvantages • Debrief • Dattilo pg 381-382 (Combined, adapted)

  25. Leisure Education Format • Program title • Statement of purpose • Program goal or goals • Enabling objectives (ways to attain goal) • Performance measures (more specific objectives) • Content description • Process Description

  26. Leisure Education – Structure of Program • Orientation activity/ice breaker • Introduction • Presentation • Discussion • Learning activities • Debriefing for each • Conclusion

  27. Leisure Education – Format + structure • Program title, goal • Orientation activity/ice breaker • Objective, content, process • Introduction • Presentation • Discussion • Objectives, content, process • Learning activities • Debriefing for each • Objectives, content, process • Conclusion