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  1. Science Warm-up 3/5/2012 • Have your take home test out on your desk and complete the following prompt. What are some potential uses for technology that allow a gene for a protein to be inserted into an organism? • Work on your 5 sentences individually and quietly

  2. Chapter 13:Genetics and Biotechnology Wood

  3. Chapter Overview • Big Idea: Genetic technology improves human health and quality of life. • Section 1: Applied Genetics • Section 2: DNA Technology • Section 3: The Human Genome

  4. Section 1: Applied Genetics • Selective Breeding p.360 • Hybridization p. 361 • Inbreeding p. 361 • Test Crosses p. 362

  5. I. Selective Breeding • The process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to their future generations is called selective breeding.

  6. II. Hybridization • Hybrid organisms can be bred to be more disease-resistant, to produce more offspring, or to grow faster. • A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is time consuming and expensive.

  7. Example of hybridization: • Santa Gertrudis cattle were developed by mating shorthorn beef cattle, who produce high quality beef, with heat- and insect-resistant Brahman cattle from India. The result of this cross are cattle that are resistant to heat and insects and also produce high-quality beef.

  8. III. Inbreeding • The process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have the desired traits and to eliminate the undesired ones in future generations • Pure breeds are maintained by inbreeding. • A disadvantage of inbreeding is that harmful recessive traits also can be passed on to future generations.

  9. Example of inbreeding • Clydesdale horses were first bred because of their strong build, agility, and obedient nature. They were only bred with other Clydesdales to continue these characteristics.

  10. IV. Test Cross • A test cross involves breeding an organism that has the unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait. • This is to determine the genotype of the unknown organism.

  11. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 CDQ 1 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D Which statement is not true of hybridization? It is relatively inexpensive to perform. It produces offspring with specific traits. It crosses a parent organism with different forms of a trait. It can take a long time to be successful.

  12. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 CDQ 2 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D Name the process that scientists use to separate DNA fragments according to size. genetic engineering gel electrophoresis cleaving selective breeding

  13. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 CDQ 3 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D Select the process in which one type of bacterium takes up the DNA from another type of bacterium. cloning sequencing transformation manipulation

  14. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 1 13.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which term explains how humans have been able to produce a wide variety of domestic cats? homogenization inbreeding selective breeding test crossing

  15. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 2 13.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D A new breed of cattle has been developed by crossing English Shorthorn cattle, which provide good beef but cannot withstand hot environments, and Brahman cattle from India that have a high heat tolerance but produce poor beef. The new breed, Santa Gertrudis, produces excellent beef and can live in hot environments. Which term describes Santa Gertrudis cattle? cross breed hybrid outbred purebred

  16. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 3 13.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Harmful recessive traits can be passed through generations of purebred animals as a result of _______. hybridization inbreeding line breeding out crossing

  17. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 4 13.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Once a tomato grower observes the desired trait in her tomato plants, she decides to perform a test cross. What is the purpose for doing the test cross? to determine if the trait is dominant or recessive to determine the phenotype of the plants to determine if the plants carry beneficial recessive alleles to determine if the plants are homozygous dominant or heterozygous

  18. 13.2 DNA Technology • Genetic engineering p. 363 • DNA tools p. 364 • Recombinant DNA technology p. 366 • Biotechnology p. 370

  19. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology Genetic Engineering • Technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA.

  20. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • Genetically engineered organisms are used • to study the expression of a particular gene. • to investigate cellular processes. • to study the development of a certain disease. Genetically engineered bollworm • to select traits that might be beneficial to humans.

  21. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology DNA Tools • An organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. • DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and to isolate genes from the rest of the genome.

  22. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • Restriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the sequence. • Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for isolating specific genes or regions of the genome. • Also known as “DNA Scissors”.

  23. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. • The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends, contain single-stranded DNA that is complementary.

  24. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • Anelectric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis. • When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel. • The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.

  25. Genetics and Biotechnology Gel electrophoresis Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • The unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.

  26. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA.

  27. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • To make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA. • Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.

  28. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • Large numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning.

  29. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • To understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four nucleotides—A, C, G, T in a tube.

  30. Genetics and Biotechnology • Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged nucleotide is incorporated into the newly synthesized strand, the reaction stops. Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye.

  31. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • The sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.

  32. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology • A technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.

  33. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology

  34. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology Biotechnology • Organisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.

  35. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology Transgenic Animals • Scientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research. • Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditiselegans

  36. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 DNA Technology Transgenic Plants • Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. • Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest. • Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.

  37. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 5 13.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D What is the name for the technology that involves inserting the genes of one organism into the DNA of another organism? bioengineering cloning genetic engineering transgenics

  38. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 6 13.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which type of protein can recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within that sequence? DNA ligase polymerase restriction enzyme transcriptase

  39. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 7 13.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which process separates DNA fragments according to size and has many applications in genetic engineering and biotechnology? DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis transgenic cloning polymerase chain reaction

  40. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 8 13.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D A DNA molecule that has had genes from another organism inserted into it is called _______. complementary DNA exogenous DNA genomic DNA recombinant DNA

  41. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 FQ 9 13.2 Formative Questions Why is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) one of the most powerful tools used by scientists? It can be used to identify errors in DNA sequences and predict the function of genes. It can detect a single DNA molecule in a sample and make millions of copies of it. It creates large amounts of recombinant DNA in genetically engineered organisms. It creates DNA fragments with sticky ends that can join with other DNA fragments.

  42. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome The Human Genome Project • The goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.

  43. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome Sequencing the Genome • Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. • These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines. • Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence.

  44. Decoding the sequence of the human genome • can be compared to Genetics and Biotechnology reading a book that was printed in code. Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome

  45. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome • Less than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body. • The genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function. • These regions are called noncoding sequences.

  46. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome DNA Fingerprinting • Protein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals. • The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual. • DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.

  47. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome Identifying Genes • Researchers have identified genes by scanning the sequence for Open Reading Frames (ORFs). • ORFs contain at least 100 codons that begin with a start codon and end with a stop codon.

  48. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome Bioinformatics • Creating and maintaining databases of biological information • Finding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins

  49. Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 The Human Genome DNA Microarrays • Tiny microscope slides or silicon chips that are spotted with DNA fragments • Help researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by genetic factors or environmental factors.