heat flow transects across the cascades and andes magmatic arcs l.
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HEAT FLOW TRANSECTS ACROSS THE CASCADES AND ANDES MAGMATIC ARCS. Will Gosnold University of North Dakota, USA Valiya M. Hamza Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Overview. HFD data Data treatment Characteristics of each HFD profile Tectonic history Tectonic models.

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heat flow transects across the cascades and andes magmatic arcs

HEAT FLOW TRANSECTS ACROSS THE CASCADES AND ANDES MAGMATIC ARCS

Will Gosnold University of North Dakota, USA

Valiya M. Hamza

Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

overview
Overview
  • HFD data
  • Data treatment
  • Characteristics of each HFD profile
  • Tectonic history
  • Tectonic models
slide3

The Global Heat Flow Database of the International Heat Flow Commission

Click on the globe to enter

Global Heat Flow ( mW m^2) : 0-40 violet, 40-80 blue,

80-120 green, 120-240 yellow, 240+ red

www.heatflow.und.edu

slide4

13-08-2004 Under Construction!

We are in the process of uploading data so they can be downloaded as Microsoft Excel 97 spreadsheets or as ASCII files by selecting from the tables below. Not all files are on the server.

Continents and Oceans

Countries

North America & South America

Countries

Africa

Continents and Oceans

www.heatflow.und.edu

Countries

Europe

Countries

Oceania

Home

slide5

Countries

North America & South America

www.heatflow.und.edu

slide7

Locations of active volcanoes (red triangles) and heat flow sites in South America. Light blue sites are in low-angle subduction area; purple sites are in the high angle subduction area.

slide10
The data were smoothed using a 10-point running mean of heat flow density vs. distance from the volcanic front.
slide11

In the Andes region of steep subduction, HFD increases sharply to >250 mW m-2 at the volcanic front and the high HFD region extends about 200 km behind the VF. At 300 km behind the VF, HFD has declined to 60 mW m-2. HFD is relatively stable in the back arc basins as well as in Precambrian regions to the east, with values in the range of 60 to 80 mW m-2.

slide12
In the Andes region with sub-horizontal subduction, the transition from magmatic arc to craton is indistinguishable from normal crustal HFD variability due to age and radioactive heat production.
slide13
The transect across the Cascades between latitudes 45 N to 49 N shows a narrow band of high HFD over the volcanic arc followed by a gradual increase in HFD from 60 mW m-2 to 80 mW m-2 over a distance of about 800 km. In the region of the Idaho Batholith, between 800 km and 1150 km, HFD is about 80 mW m-2.
slide14
The zone of high HFD is about 300 km wide in the steeply subducting section of the Andean arc and <100 km wide in the Cascade arc. HFD variability in the flat subduction zone is indistinguishable from variability due to crustal age and radioactive heat production.
tectonic scheme for altiplano puna volcanic complex
Tectonic scheme for Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex
  • 30 ma - Crustal doubling
  • 13 ma – Delamination event
  • 10 ma – Initiation of pulsed emplacement of upper to mid-crustal magmas which fueled eruption of at least 30,000 km3 of ignimbrites
  • 10 ma – emplacement of 1,500 km3
  • 8 ma – emplacement of 2,500 km3
  • 6 ma – emplacement of 5,400 km3
  • 4 ma – emplacement of 10,000 km3
slide16

meters

meters

meters

meters

Temperature contours 13 my after delamination.

Magma emplacement in the upper crust is necessary to account for observed heat flow.

slide19

Plate rollback with counter flow at subduction velocity

Plate rollback with counter flow at half subduction velocity

Plate rollback with no counter flow

slide24

Locations of active volcanoes (red triangles) and HFD sites in South America. Light blue sites are in low-angle subduction area; purple sites are in the high angle subduction area.

slide26

Conclusions

In all cases, the high HFD belt coincides with the zone of active volcanism and the amplitude of the HFD anomaly appears to correlate with the angle of subduction. Variable width of the high HFD zones is interpreted to be related to differences in thickness and composition of the local crust, and to the duration of subduction.

slide27
The sharpness of changes in HFD is due to magma emplacement within the past 4 my.
  • The overprint of near surface magmatism masks the thermal effects of delamination.

Special acknowledgement of volcanologist Shanaka deSilva for consultation on volcano-tectonic history.

slide29

6 my after delamination

10 my after delamination