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Fate and Destiny

Fate and Destiny

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Fate and Destiny

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  1. Fate and Destiny HUM 2051: Civilization I Fall 2010 Dr. Perdigao October 15, 2010

  2. Virgil’s Frames • As “eulogy” of Roman values (early reference to Fides and Vesta [939]), the cost at which they are achieved and sustained • Translation from prose to poetic form (not always complete hexameter lines) • After completing the poem, he tries to fix remaining lines but does not change chronological sequence

  3. New Order • Aeneas’ epithet is “pious” while the Greek hero’s physical and intellectual traits are emphasized; Aeneas’ ethics, piety or devotion to his family, gods, and country are emphasized • Nostos=homecoming . . . Journey • Pietas=deep respect and reverence for one’s father, family, country, ancestors, and the gods • Augustus (Julius Caesar’s great-nephew, adopted son): rule=civic renewal of Rome, revival of traditional religious devotion, and the fostering of a new patriotism. The arts become important vehicles for the ideals reflected in Virgil’s work

  4. Comparison of Terms • Achilles and Odysseus are motivated by “obligation by personal gain and glory and display heroic wrath” while Aeneas is driven by obligation or duty (pietas) (Quartarone 202). • Juno’s wrath as motivation—like anger of Poseidon (Odyssey) and wrath of Achilles (Iliad); her anger over Dido and Carthage, injured honor (202) • Venus—Thetis (Iliad), Athena (Odyssey), as protectresses • Mercury intervenes to tell Aeneas that he must forsake personal glory and personal relationships (like/unlike when Hermes tells Odysseus that he must leave Calypso)

  5. Close Readings • Opening lines, invocation to the muse, conceptual shift • “Is this / The palm for loyalty? This our power restored?” (937) • Response: “fated things to come,” the “gift of empire without end” (938). From mythical beginnings to reality • Dido’s story, betrayal, Sychaeus, Pygmalion • Venus’ treatment of Aeneas, disguise • Venus’ spell • Ascanius/Iulus • (“while Ilium stood”) • Stories retold, caution of Trojans emphasized

  6. Laocoön and his Sons/The Laocoön Group II, 958)

  7. Revisions • Hector appears in dream, like Achilles in underworld? (960) • Hector’s story: “How changed / From that proud Hector who returned to Troy / Wearing Achilles’ armor” (960, L367-368). • “Trojans we have been; Ilium has been; / The glory of the Teucrians is no more” (961) • Cassandra’s story: “dragged / By her long hair out of Minerva’s shrine, / Lifting her brilliant eyes in vain to heaven” (963, L535). • Priam’s story: “in the very midst of death / Would neither hold his peace nor spare his anger” (967, L692-693).

  8. Revisions • “And my dear father’s image came to mind / As our king, just his age, mortally wounded, / Gasped his life away before my eyes. / Creusa came to mind, too, left alone” (968, L731-734). • Evoking pity • “Never before so clear—in a pure light / Stepping before me, radiant through the night, / My loving mother came: immortal, tall, / And lovely as the lords of heaven know her. / Catching me by the hand, she held me back” (968, L 773-777). • Controlling rage

  9. Aeneas, Anchises, Ascanius (past, present, future)

  10. Creusa who? • Creusa’s words: “If you are going out to die, take us / To face the whole thing with you. . . . / When you have gone, to whom is Iulus left? / Your father? Wife?—one called that long ago” (971, L881-886). • Revision of Andromache’s words? Here, asking for new role but as forward-thinking as Lysistrata? • [972-974: journey, loss of Creusa, as shade, patterns of 3s]: What happens to Creusa? What is Aeneas’ reaction? Does this parallel his treatment of Dido? (i.e., how does “duty-bound” Aeneas treat women? [and you thought Odysseus was bad!])