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CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES. Section 1: The North and the Midwest Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom Section 3: The Slave System. Section 1: The North and the Midwest. Objectives:. What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families?

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chapter 8 regional societies

CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Section 3: The Slave System

objectives

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Objectives:
  • What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families?
  • What innovations transformed industrial and farm production and domestic life in the early 1800s?
  • What were the major issues concerning trade unions, and what actions did unions take in the early to mid-1800s?
  • What groups immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s, and how did some Americans respond to this immigration?
  • How did life in the Midwest change in the early 1800s?
wealthy families

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Wealthy families
  • headed by bankers, manufacturers, and merchants
  • lavish homes; often concerned about social status
middle class families

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Middle-class families
  • headed by lawyers, artisans, ministers, and shopkeepers
  • modest homes; emphasized education
poor families

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Poor families
  • small apartments, attics, or cellars
  • high levels of crime and disease
innovations

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Innovations
  • The factory system allowed all aspects of manufacturing to take place under one roof.
  • Power looms enabled factory production of cloth.
  • Lighter, stronger plows required less strength to operate.
  • The mechanical reaper allowed greater harvests in less time.
  • Sewing machines saved labor in the home.
issues of trade unions

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Issues of trade unions
  • rising working hours
  • increased production demands
  • child labor
  • poverty of workers
  • safety standards
actions of unions

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Actions of unions
  • went on strike
  • organized political associations
  • pushed for reforms
immigrants in the mid 1800s

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Immigrants in the mid-1800s
  • many Irish
  • many Germans
  • many Roman Catholics
nativist response

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Nativist response
  • favoritism toward native-born
  • desire to restrict immigrants’ voting and political rights
  • creation of nativist organizations
  • anti-Catholic riots
  • violence against the foreign-born
life in the midwest

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Life in the Midwest
  • increased demand for crops
  • increasing crop specialization
  • new agricultural technology
  • shift from home-produced goods to store-bought goods
objectives12

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Objectives:
  • What were the major elements of the southern economy?
  • How did planters differ from yeoman farmers and poor white farmers?
  • What cultural traits did white southerners of different classes share?
  • What was life like for most free African Americans in the South?
elements of the southern economy

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Elements of the southern economy
  • high-demand agricultural goods such as cotton, corn, and tobacco
  • slave labor
  • manufacturing of bricks, textiles, and tobacco products
  • good ports
  • few factory workers
  • insufficient taxes to pay for improvements
  • little purchasing power in the hands of the majority
planters

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Planters
  • large, sometimes elaborate houses
  • 20 or more slaves
yeoman farmers

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Yeoman farmers
  • in the majority
  • small, modest homes
  • grew own food
poor whites

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Poor whites
  • lived on unproductive land
  • struggled to provide for themselves
cultural traits of white southerners

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Cultural traits of white southerners
  • diet included corn, pork, and coffee
  • similar housing
  • music, stories, arts and crafts influenced by British and African heritage
  • common religion interpreted to support slavery
life for free african americans

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Life for free African Americans
  • usually required to register with local authorities
  • required to carry identification passes
  • not allowed to vote
  • not allowed to hold meetings
  • not allowed to bear weapons
  • not allowed to testify in court against whites
objectives19

Section 3: The Slave System

Objectives:
  • How did critics and supporters of slavery explain their positions?
  • What were the living conditions of enslaved African Americans like?
  • What was the cultural life of slaves like?
  • What types of resistance did slaves practice?
arguments against slavery

Section 3: The Slave System

Arguments against slavery
  • contradicted the values of freedom and liberty
  • less profitable than basing economy on wage labor
arguments for slavery

Section 3: The Slave System

Arguments for slavery
  • only way to provide an adequate supply of labor
  • slaves provided with adequate food and clothing
  • slaves cared for in old age
living conditions of slaves

Section 3: The Slave System

Living conditions of slaves
  • poor housing
  • limited food
  • violent punishments
  • threats of being sold
  • families divided
cultural life of slaves

Section 3: The Slave System

Cultural life of slaves
  • struggle to maintain family ties
  • not allowed to learn to read, so became skilled storytellers
  • animal tales used to veil discussion of owners
  • African heritage reflected in rhythms and communal singing in music
  • woodcarvings, pottery, woven baskets as folk art
  • religion a blend of Christian elements and traditional African beliefs
resistance of slaves

Section 3: The Slave System

Resistance of slaves
  • revolts
  • work shutdowns and slowdowns
  • running away